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Placer Gold Deposits 
of Arizona 



GEOLOGICAL 



SURVEY 



BULLETIN 



13 5 5 



Placer Gold Deposits 
of Arizona 



By MAUREEN G. JOHNSON 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 1355 



A catalog of location, geology, and 
production with lists of annotated 
references pertaining to the placer 
districts 




UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON : 1972 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
ROGERS C. B. MORTON, Secretary 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
V. E. McKelvey, Director 

Library of Congress catalog-card No. 72-600097 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1 (paper cover) 
Stock Number 2401-2155 



CONTENTS 



Page 



Abstract 1 

Introduction 1 

History of placer mining in Arizona , : 1 

Purpose and scope of present study 2 

Cochise County ¥ 4 

1. Dos Cabezas and Teviston districts 4 

2. Courtland-Gleeson district (Turquoise district) 6 

3. Bisbee-Warren district (Gold Gulch placer) 7 

4. Huachuca placers (Hereford or Hartford district) 7 

Other districts 8 

5. California district 8 

6. Pearce district 9 

7. Rucker Basin 9 

Gila County 9 

8. Payson (Green Valley) district 9 

9. Globe-Miami district 10 

10. Barbarossa-Dripping Spring placers (Banner district) 13 

Other districts 15 

11. Mazatzal Mountains 15 

12. Young district 15 

* Graham and Greenlee Counties 15 

13. Clifton-Morenci district 15 

14. San Francisco River placers 17 

15. Gila River placers 18 

Other districts 20 

16. Rattlesnake district 20 

Maricopa County 20 

17. Big Horn district 20 

18. Vulture district 20 

19. San Domingo district 21 

20. Cave Creek district 24 

Other districts 25 

21. Aqua Fria district 25 

22. Dads Creek 25 

23. Eagle Tail Mountains 25 

24. New River district 25 

25. Pikes Peak district 26 

26. Sunflower district 26 

Mohave County 26 

27. Chemehuevis district (Gold Wing district) 26 

28. San Francisco district (Oatman district) 27 

29. Kingman area placers (McConnico and Maynard districts) 29 

30. Colorado River placers 30 



III 



IV CONTENTS 

Page 

Mohave County— Continued 

31. Gold Basin and Lost Basin district 32 

Other districts 34 

32. Cottonwood district 34 

33. Owens (McCracken) district 34 

34. Wallapai district 34 

Pima County 34 

35. Alder Canyon placers 34 

36. Greaterville district 35 

37. Arivaca district (Las Guijas placers) 37 

38. Sierrita Mountains placers (Papago and Pima districts) 39 

39. Baboquivari district 39 

40. Cababi (Comobabi) district 40 

41. Quijotoa district 41 

42. Ajo district 43 

Other districts 43 

43. Empire district 43 

44. Old Baldy district (Madera Canyon placers) 43 

45. Silver Bell district 44 

Pinal County 44 

46. Old Hat district (Canada del Oro placers; Southern Belle placers) 44 

Other districts 45 

47. Casa Grande district 45 

48. Goldfield district 46 

49. Mineral Creek district 46 

50. Pioneer (Superior) district 46 

Santa Cruz County 46 

51. Oro Blanco district 46 

52. Nogales district 47 

53. Patagonia district 48 

54. Tyndall-Palmetto-Harshaw districts 49 

Yavapai County 50 

55. Lynx Creek drainage area 50 

56. Hassayampa River drainage area 52 

57. Big Bug Creek drainage area 55 

58. Turkey Creek drainage area 57 

59. Black Canyon drainage area 58 

60. Humbug Creek drainage area 59 

61. Weaver (Rich Hill) district 60 

62. Model and Kirkland placers 62 

63. Copper Basin district 63 

64. Granite Creek 65 

65. Eureka (Bagdad) district 66 

Other districts 67 

66. Lincoln Creek 67 

67. Pocket Creek 67 

68. Squaw Creek 67 

Yuma County 67 

69. Gila City (Dome) district 67 



CONTENTS V 

Page 

Yuma County— Continued 

70. Laguna district 69 

71. Muggins Mountains placers , 70 

72. Castle Dome district 71 

73. Tank Mountains placers 71 

74. Kofa district 73 

75. Ellsworth district 74 

76. Trigo district (Colorado River placers) 75 

77. La Paz district ^ 76 

78. La Cholla, Middle Camp, and Oro Fino placers 78 

79. Plomosa district 80 

Other districts 81 

80. Cienega district 81 

81. Cocopah district 81 

82. Fortuna district 81 

83. La Posa district 82 

84. Mohawk district 82 

85. Santa Maria district 82 

86. Sheep Tanks district 82 

87. Sonora district 83 

Gold production from placer deposits 83 

Summary 88 

Relation between placer deposits and rock deposits 89 

Age of placer gravels 91 

Age of lode mineralization 91 

Bibliography 93 

Literature references 93 

Geologic map references 101 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plate 1. Map showing location of placer gold deposits in Arizona In pocket 

Page 

Figure 1. Graph showing Arizona placer gold production in ounces __ 89 



TABLES 



Page 

Table 1. Arizona placer gold production 84 

2. Arizona lode-gold production 88 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2012 



https://archive.org/details/placergolddeposiOOjohn 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



By Maureen G. Johnson 



ABSTRACT 

Eighty-seven placer districts in Arizona are estimated to have produced a mini- 
mum of 564,052 ounces of placer gold from 1774 to 1968. The location, areal extent, 
past production, mining history, and probable lode source summarized for each 
district are based on information obtained from a wide variety of published 
reports relating to placer deposits. Annotated references to all reports that contain 
information about individual deposits are given for each district. 

Most of the placer gold found in Arizona was derived from systems of small 
gold-quartz veinlets and stringers scattered throughout the bedrock of the adjacent 
mountain ranges. In only a few localities was the gold in large placer deposits de- 
rived from well-defined vein systems mined for the lode-gold content. The most 
productive placer mining era was 1858-80, when rich deposits of placer gold were 
found in the southwestern and central parts of Arizona and hundreds of individuals 
worked the rich surface accumulations of gold. Subsequent placer mining was done 
by individuals working small deposits in many areas of the State using small-scale 
portable equipment, such as rockers, sluices, and drywashers. Large-scale dredge 
operations were active in a few districts. 

INTRODUCTION 

HISTORY OF PLACER MINING IN ARIZONA 

Arizona's placer-mining industry began in 1774, when Padre Man- 
uel Lopez reportedly directed Papago Indians in mining the gold- 
bearing gravels along the flanks of the Quijotoa Mountains, Pima 
County. Placer mining was active in that region from 1774 to 1849, 
when the discovery of gold in California apparently attracted many of 
the Mexican miners who worked the gravels (Stephens, 1884). Arizona 
was then part of Mexico, and little is known of the placer mining 
that probably was carried on in various parts of southern Arizona. 
Placers were probably worked in the Oro Blanco district, Santa Cruz 
County, and the Arivaca district, Pima County. The part of Arizona 
north of the Gila River was ceded to the United States in 1848, and 
the part of Arizona south of the Gila River, where most of the early 
placer mining occurred, was purchased in 1853. Placers were dis- 
covered in the 1850's in the Bagdad area, Yavapai County, and 
Chemuehuevis Mountains, Mohave County; but it was not until 1858, 
when placers were discovered by Colonel Jacob Snively at the north 



l 



2 PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 

end of the Gila Mountains, Yuma County, that the first placer-mining 
rush in Arizona was precipitated. The early years of the 1860's saw 
the discovery of the famous placers at La Paz, Yuma County, and 
Rich Hill and Lynx Creek, Yavapai County; many smaller and less 
famous placer fields were discovered at that time. 

In the 1860's, Arizona was a relatively isolated and underpopulated 
territory, fraught with communication and travel difficulties, and beset 
by Indian problems. Placer mining was actively pursued throughout 
the territory, and some rich lode-gold mines were discovered and 
worked; but real news of Arizona mining was slow to filter out from 
the territory to the more populated areas in California and the East. 
The period from 1860 to 1880 is reported as the most active and pro- 
ductive period in placer mining, but because of poor communica- 
tions, there is very little reliable information or production record. 

By 1900 most placer areas had been discovered, and many were nearly 
worked out. Placer mining continued intermittently during the early 
years of the 1900's. Many attempts were made in various parts of the 
State to mine placer gravels by drywashing machines, but it was not 
until the economic impetus of the depression that placer mining be- 
came active again in Arizona. During the years 1930-38, 95 different 
districts were credited with placer gold production, but many of 
these districts produced only a few ounces. 

After the boom of the 1930's, the war years of the 1940's were a 
setback to gold mining activity. War Production Board Order L-208 
greatly restricted the development of gold mines; prospecting for 
and mining metals essential to the war effort was deemed more im- 
portant than mining gold. Even more important, however, the economy 
of the 1940's encouraged work in offices, factories, and war industries 
for those not in military service, and as a result, many miners and 
prospectors left the gold fields and never returned. 

After 1942, placer production never again reached the heights of 
the 1930's or the peak production of the 1860's to 1880's. 

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF PRESENT STUDY 

The present paper is a compilation of published information re- 
lating to the placer gold deposits of Arizona, one of a series of four 
papers describing the gold placer deposits of the Southwestern States. 
The purpose of the paper is to outline areas of placer deposits in the 
State of Arizona and to serve as a guide to their location, extent, 
production history, and source. The work was undertaken as part of the 
investigation of the distribution of known gold occurrences in the 
Western United States. 

Each placer is described briefly. Location is given by geographic 



INTRODUCTION 



3 



area and township and range. (See pi. 1 for location of the placer 
gold deposits.) Topographic maps and geologic maps that show the 
placer area are listed. Access is indicated by direction and distance 
along major roads and highways from a nearby center of population. 

Detailed information relating to the exact location of placer de- 
posits, their thickness, distribution, and average gold content (all 
values cited in the text have been converted to gold at $35 per ounce, 
except where otherwise noted) is included, where available, under "Ex- 
tent." U.S. Bureau of Land Management land plats of surveyed 
township and ranges were especially helpful in locating old placer 
claims and some creeks and drywashes not named on recent topo- 
graphic maps. These land plats were consulted for all the surveyed 
areas in Arizona and were especially useful in locating placers in 
Yavapai County, for which recent topographic maps are not available, 
although most of the area is surveyed. U.S. Bureau of Mines records 
were also consulted for the location of small placer claims. 

Discovery of the placer deposit and subsequent placer-mining ac- 
tivity are briefly described under "Production history." Detailed dis- 
cussion of mining operations is omitted, as this information can be 
found in the individual papers published by the State of Arizona, 
in the yearly Mineral Resources and the Mineral Yearbook volumes 
published by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological 
Survey, and in many mining journals. Placer gold production, in 
ounces (table 1), was compiled from the yearly Mineral Resources and 
Mineral Yearbook volumes and from information supplied by the 
U.S. Bureau of Mines. These totals of recorded production are prob- 
ably lower than actual gold production, for substantial amounts of 
coarse placer gold commonly sold by individuals to jewelers and 
specimen buyers are not reported to the U.S. Bureau of Mines or to 
the U.S. Bureau of the Mint. Information about the age and type of 
lode deposit that was the source of the placer gold is discussed for 
each district. 

An extensive body of literature was searched to find information 
relating to all the placers in the State. A list of literature references 
is given with each district with annotation indicating the type of 
information found. Sources of information are detailed reports on 
mining districts, general geologic reports, Federal and State publica- 
tions, and brief articles and news notes in mining journals. The 
Arizona Bureau of Mines has published a series of bulletins describing 
the geographic location and history of many placers in the State 
(Wilson, 1961, and earlier editions). The present report, which draws 
on much information contained in the State bulletins, emphasizes 
locations keyed to topographic maps, detailed production data, and an 



4 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



extensive bibliography. A complete bibliography, given at the end of 
the paper, includes separate sections for all literature references and 
all geologic map references. 

Map publications of the Geological Survey can be ordered from 
the U.S. Geological Survey, Distribution Section, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, Colo. 80225; book publications, from the Super- 
intendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D.C. 20402. 

COCHISE COUNTY 

1. DOS CABEZAS AND TEVISTON DISTRICTS 

Location: North and south flanks of the Dos Cabezas Mountains be- 
tween San Simon Valley and Sulphur Spring Valley, Tps. 13-15 
S., Rs. 26 and 27 E. 

Topographic maps: Dos Cabezas and Luzena 15-minute quandrangles. 

Geologic map: Cooper, 1960, Reconnaissance map of the Wilcox, 
Fisher Hills [now named Luzena], Cochise, and Dos Cabezas 
quadrangle, scale 1:62,500. 

Access: The Dos Cabezas district, on the south flank of the Dos Cabezas 
Mountains, is 15 miles east of Willcox on State Highway 186. The 
Teviston district, on the north side of the Dos Cabezas Mountains, 
is accessible by a road leading 5 miles south from Interstate 10, 
17 miles northeast of Willcox and 6 i/ 2 miles west of Bowie (form- 
erly Teviston). 

Extent: Placers on the south flank of the mountains (Dos Cabezas 
district) are said to be found in all the gulches draining the 
mineralized part of the mountain range, an area about 3 miles 
long between Walnut Canyon and Howard Canyon. The most 
actively worked placers are located in parts of sees. 27-34, T. 14 
S., R. 27 E. (Dos Cabezas quadrangle), but some deposits are 
probably located at widely separated points along the south flank 
adjacent to small gold prospects. The gold-bearing gravels in the 
gulches in the main mineralized area are thin near the mountains 
and thicker toward the south near the village of Dos Cabezas (sec. 
32, T. 14 S., R. 27 E.). The gold is flat, ragged, and fairly coarse; 
one report claims that nuggets ranging from 1 to 20 ounces were 
found. 

The placers on the north flank of the Dos Cabezas Mountains 
(Teviston district) are found in mountain gulches and on pedi- 
ments at the edge of the mountains. Most of the placer mining was 
concentrated in the area between Gold Gulch (sec. 24, T. 13 S., R. 
26 E., Luzena quadrangle) and Ash Gulch (sec. 22 and 27, T. 13 



COCHISE COUNTY 



5 



S., R. 26E.) . The placer gravels on the pediment drained by Gold 
Gulch consist of coarse to fine granitic sand with some clay and 
many coarse, semirounded boulders. Gravels sampled to a depth of 
6 feet assayed $4.08 per cubic yard. 

Production history: The Dos Cabezas placers reportedly were dis- 
covered in 1901, but lode deposits in the district were known in the 
1860's and worked intermittently since the 1870's. Although some 
reports suggest that the placers were known before 1901, I have 
found no production records from that time. Most of the placer 
gold was recovered by drywashing the gravels, and, when water was 
available, by sluicing and panning. 

The placers in the Teviston district have been worked intermit- 
tently since the 1900's, but earlier history is unknown. Small dryland 
dredges worked placers in Gold Gulch in 1933, and at the Inspira- 
tion placers during the period 1937-38. The Ash Gulch placers 
were actively worked during the period 1930-31. 

Production records combine gold recovery from the Teviston and 
Dos Cabezas districts, although the placers in the Teviston district 
were richer than those in the Dos Cabezas district. 

Source: The gold in the placers was derived from erosion of gold- 
bearing quartz veins exposed throughout the Dos Cabezas Mountains. 
Most of the important lode-gold mines occur within, and near, a 
major fault zone 2 y 2 miles north of Dos Cabezas village where 
small, closely spaced gold-quartz-sulfide veins occur; other gold 
mines are north of this fault zone. A geochronologic study of the 
mountain range indicates that some gold-quartz veins are younger 
than 29 m.y. (million years). 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Discovery; location; origin (Dos Cabezas district). 

Bray, 1933: Describes dryland dredge used at Gold Gulch. 

Church, 1887: Notes nonactivity in placer mining, although lode 

mining was active. 
Engineering and Mining Journal, 1931: Assay results of sampling 

at Gold Gulch placer. 
Erickson, 1968: Dates mineralized quartz veins. 

Gardner and Johnson, 1934: Placer-mining techniques in Gold 
Gulch; drywashing; type of gravel. 

Heikes and Yale, 1913: Value of gravels; size of large nugget 
(Teviston district). 

Land, 1931: History; size of nuggests; emphasis on lode deposits 
(Dos Cabezas district). 

U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1931: Location of placer-mining opera- 
tion. 



6 PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 

1939-41: Placer-mining operations at Inspiration placers; drag- 
line dredge; amount of gravel handled; no location for placers. 

Wilson, 1961: Location; history; depth of gravels; size of gravels 
(Teviston district); production. 

Wilson, Cunningham, and Butler, 1934: Bedrock geology; history 
and description of lode mnies; does not describe placers. 

2. COURTLAN D-GLEESON DISTRICT (TURQUOISE DISTRICT) 

Location: Near Maud Hill and south end of Gleeson Ridge in low 
group of hills east of the south tip of the Dragoon Mountains, T. 
19 S., R. 25 E. 

Topographic map: Gleeson 15-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic map: Gilluly, 1956, Geologic map of parts of the Benson 

and Pearce quadrangles, Arizona (pi. 5), scale 1:62,500. 

Access: Gleeson is accessible by light-duty roads leading 11 miles south 
from U.S. Highway 666 at Pearce, or from a light-duty road leading 
8 miles west from U.S. Highway 666 1 mile north of Elfreda, or 16 
miles east from U.S. Highway 80 at Tombstone. 

Extent: During the 1930's minor gold placers were worked in 
gulches and on pediments east of Gleeson. Most placer mining was 
concentrated in an area i/ 2 mile long by i/ 8 mile wide located \y 4 
miles east of the Gleeson Post Office (sec. 33, T. 19 S., R. 25 E.) . 
The placer is a thin mantle of auriferous gravel and soil on a 
limestone pediment at the base of Maud Hill. Coarse gold was 
washed from the gully leading west from the Copper Belle mine 
(sec. 32, T. 19 S., R. 25 E.) half a mile north of Gleeson. 

Production history: The placers were worked in 1910 and again dur- 
ing the period 1932-35. At the base of Maud Hill, tests on 100 
cubic yards of placer ground indicated that the gravels averaged 
$1.12 per cubic yard. 

Source: The placer is said to be derived from gold-bearing quartz 
veins. The literature relating to the Gleeson ore deposits does not 
describe gold-quartz veins but does describe gold in the lead-silver 
deposits. Gold was also recovered as a byproduct of copper ores 
from the Copper Belle mine. 

Literature: 

Gilluly, 1956: Discusses the age of mineralization in the Courtland- 

Gleeson district (p. 62, 160). 
Wilson, 1927: Discusses mineralization and types of lode mines; no 

placer description. 
1961: Location; size of gold particles; characteristics of gravels; 

average gold content per cubic yard; minerals in placer gravels; 

production. 



COCHISE COUNTY 



7 



3. BISBEE- WARREN DISTRICT (GOLD GULCH PLACER) 

Location: South flank of the Mule Mountains. Tps. 23 and 24 S., R. 
25 E. 

Topographic map: Bisbee 15-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic map: Hayes and Landis, 1964, Geologic map of the southern 

part of the Mule Mountains, scale 1:48,000. 
Access: A light-duty road leads 2 miles east from Warren to Gold 

Gulch. 

Extent: Minor gold placers are found in the sand and gravel of Gold 
Gulch, which drains south from the vicinity of Gold Hill in the 
Mule Mountains (west tier of sections in Tps. 23 and 24 S., R. 
25 E.) 

Production history: Gold placers were known to occur in Gold Gulch 
as early as 1902; they were worked sporadically until 1932, then 
steadily to 1941. In 1934, 27 placer mines recovered 246 ounces of 
gold, mostly from Gold Gulch. 

Source: The small placer gold deposits in Gold Gulch, southeast of 
the mining towns of Bisbee and Warren, were derived from small 
gold-bearing silica veins that mineralized parts of the Glance Con- 
glomerate (Cretaceous) during late Cretaceous or early Tertiary 
time. The mineralizing solutions deposited gold-bearing silica with 
minor galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite along fractures in the 
conglomerate. The silica veins are not economically important. 

Literature: 

Ransome, 1904a: Notes presence of placer gold; source; economic 
importance. 

1904c: Repeats description in 1904a. 

Trischka, 1938: Explains origin of placer gold. 

U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1935: Reports placer production from Gold 
Gulch. 

Wilson, 1961: Virtually repeats Ransome (1904a); production. 
4. HUACHUCA PLACERS (HEREFORD OR HARTFORD DISTRICT) 

Location: East flank of the Huachuca Mountains, 3 miles north of 
the international boundary. Tps. 23 and 24 S., and Rs. 20 and 21 E. 

Topographic maps: Hereford and Sunnyside 15-minute quandrangles. 

Geologic map: Hayes and Raup, 1968, Geologic map of the Huachuca 
and Mustang Mountains, scale 1:48,000. 

Access: Ash Canyon is accessible by a light-duty road leading east 
from State Highway 92, 25 miles east of Bisbee. 

Extent: Placer gold deposits that also contain some scheelite have 
been worked in Ash Canyon; most of the gold is found in the 
bottom of the canyon between the 5,000- and 6,500-foot elevation 



8 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



(sees. 1 and 2, T. 24 S., R. 20 E.; sec. 6, T. 24 S., R. 21 E., Sunnyside 
quadrangle; sees. 31 and 32, T. 23 S., R. 21 E., Hereford quadrangle). 
In 1937 gravels consisting of 8 feet of barren overburden and 2 feet 
of gold-bearing material were mined; the upper 2-3 inches of 
cemented gravel bedrock was also mined. Gold was recovered from 
the gravels near the Harper mine (possibly the Harper Tungsten 
mines in Bear Canyon (approximately sec. 1, T. 24 S., R. 19 E., 
Sunnyside quadrangle)). 

Production history: The placers in the Huachuca Mountains were 
known during the late 1800's; but they apparently attracted little 
attention until 1911, when a nugget weighing about 22y 2 ounces 
was found, and miners were reportedly recovering $3-$4 per day. 
No placer production is recorded for 1911, however. In 1919 another 
large nugget weighing 8i/ 2 ounces was recovered from the Old 
Timer placer in Ash Canyon. The placers have been worked inter- 
mittently during the 20th century. 

Source: The gold is thought to be derived from auriferous quartz 
veins found in the granite upstream from the placers; these small 
veins, which have not been described in the literature, probably 
contain some scheelite. 

Literature: 

Blake, 1899: Reports placer mining near the Harper mine. 

Gardner and Allsman, 1938: Depth of gravel; thickness of over- 
burden and of pay streak; boulder and clay content; type of 
bedrock; placer-mining operations with power shovel. 

Mining World, 1911: Production per day per man. 

U.S. Geological Survey, 1918: Location; placer-mining activity; no 
recorded production. 

1919: Presence of scheelite in placers; size of nuggets; produc- 
tion. 

Weber, 1948: Summary of bedrock geology; no placer description; 
indicates age of scheelite and gold mineralization. 

Wilson, 1941: No placer description; locates Harper tungsten mine. 

1951: Notes that gold placers were worked during depression 

years; no placer description. 

1961: Location; production; describes type of gravels; distribu- 
tion of gold in gravels; source of gold. 

OTHER DISTRICTS 

5. CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 
One hundred sixteen ounces of placer gold was recovered in 1906-7; 
no information has been found relating to the placer occurrence. 
The California district is located in the vicinity of Paradise (T. 
17 S., Rs. 30 and 31 E.) on the east side of the Chiricahua Mountains. 



GILA COUNTY 



9 



Literature: 

U.S. Geological Survey, 1906: Reports placer production from Cali- 
fornia district. 

6. PEARCE DISTRICT 
A silver-gold placer was reported to occur in gravels at the east 
and west margins of Pearce Hill (sees. 4 and 5, T. 18 S., R. 25 E., 
Pearce quadrangle). The placers are said to be derived from quartz 
veins in Pearce Hill that contain silver halides and free gold. No 
record of placer production is credited to this district by the U.S. 
Bureau of Mines. Wilson (1961, p. 71) states that placer gold-silver 
was the first shipment of ore from the district in 1895 and that addi- 
tional shipments were made during the period 1917-27. The produc- 
tion from placer material containing very high amounts of silver 
was said to be worth $8,700. 
Literature: 

Wilson, 1961: Production; thickness of placer material; gold-silver 
values in material; source. 

7. RUCKER BASIN 
One ounce of placer gold was recovered in 1957 from Rucker Basin 
(T. 19 S., R. 29 E.) , 15 miles southwest of the California district on 
the west flank of the Chiricahua Mountains. No information has been 
found relating to this placer occurrence. 

GILA COUNTY 
8. PAYSON (GREEN VALLEY) DISTRICT 

Location: South of the Mogollon Rim in the Tonto Basin, T. 10 N., 
R. 10 E. 

Topographic map: Payson 15-minute quadrangle. 
Geologic maps: 

Lausen and Wilson, 1925, Geologic map of the Payson district, Ari- 
zona (pi. 1), scale 1 inch equals approximately 3 miles. 

Wilson, Moore, and Peirce, 1959, Geologic map of Gila County, 
scale 1:375,000. 

Access: Placers are about half a mile west of State Highway 87, about 
5 miles south of Payson, and are accessible by dirt roads leading 
from the highway to the Ox Bow mine. 

Extent: Placer gold was recovered from gravels below the outcrop of 
the Ox Bow mine (sec. 32, T. 10 N., R. 10 E.). Most of the gold 
recovered was from surface gravels, but in 1939 some gold was 
recovered from deeper gravels said to be an old channel not related 
to the stream channels. 

Production history: The Payson (Green Valley) district was first 



10 PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 

explored during 1875-76; the early prospectors in the 1870's and 
1880's were attracted by rich float containing abundant free gold. Al- 
though many of these miners were experienced in placer mining, very 
little placer gold was found in the district. The placers below the Ox 
Bow vein were worked sporadically for a number of years between 
1910 and 1960 during the rainy seasons, but they have not pro- 
duced much gold. 

Source: The gold was derived from the Ox Bow vein and was con- 
centrated in the thin soil on the hillside. The gold particles occur 
as coarse flat nuggets to a quarter of an inch long and are a deeper 
color than the vein gold, probably owing to less silver. 

Literature: 

Lausen and Wilson, 1925: Describes occurrence and character of 
placer gold. 

Mining Journal, 1939b: Reports placer activity in old gravel chan- 
nel. 

Wilson, 1961: Repeats description of Lausen and Wilson (1925). 

9. GLOBE-MIAMI DISTRICT 

Location: Foothills of the Pinal and Apache Mountains, T. 1 S., R. 
15 E.; Tps. 1 and 2 N., Rs. 14 and 15 E. (unsurveyed) . 

Topographic maps: Globe 15-minute quadrangle; 7 l/j-minute quad- 
rangles—Inspiration, Lost Gulch, Gold Gulch, and Pinto Creek; 
Haunted Canyon (Pinto Creek); Globe (Pinal Creek); Pinal Peak 
(Gap and Catsclaw Flat; upper Pinal Creek). 

Geologic maps: 

Peterson, 1960, Geologic map of the Haunted Canyon quadrangle, 
scale 1:24,000. 

Peterson, 1962, Geologic map of the Globe-Miami district, Pinal 

County, Arizona (pi. 1), scale 1:24,000. (Lost Gulch, Gold Gulch, 

Pinto Creek, and Pinal Creek) 
Peterson, Gilbert, and Quick, 1951, Geologic map of the Castle 

Dome area, Gila County, Arizona (pi. 1), scale approximately 

1:6,000. (Gold Gulch) 
Ransome, 1904, Geologic map of the Globe quadrangle, scale 

1:62,500. (Pinal Creek; Gap and Catsclaw Flats) 
Access: From Globe to Lost Gulch, dirt roads lead about 4 miles 
west from State Highway 88, 4i/ 2 miles north of Globe, to mining 
areas near Lost Gulch; to Gold Gulch, an improved road leads 
2i/ 2 miles north from U.S. Highway 60-70, 12 miles west of Globe, 
to Castle Dome mine area; to Pinto Creek, a dirt road leads 5-6 
miles northwest from road to Castle Dome mine to Pinto Creek 
and Haunted Canyon; to Pinal Creek, Sixshooter Canyon Road, 



GILA COUNTY 



11 



three-quarters of a mile south of Globe, leads 3 miles south to 
placer area, paralleling Pinal Creek. 
Extent: Small placer deposits occur in six localities within the Globe- 
Miami district. Some placers are near the major copper-mining 
areas, but they are not necessarily derived from the copper ores. 

Lost Gulch, northwest of Globe, is the most productive placer 
area; the gulch drains southeast from the vicinity of Myberg Basin 
and the south flanks of Flat Top and Sleeping Beauty Mountains 
in the Copper Cities mining area to the Inspiration tailing pond 
(before construction of the pond, Lost Gulch drained to Pinal 
Creek). The gold placers occur along Lost Gulch and adjoining 
benches for an undetermined distance, but they were most actively 
worked in the mile-long part of the creek along the south flank of 
Sleeping Beauty Mountain (T. 1 N., R. 14 E., Inspiration quad- 
rangle). 

Gold was recovered from the gravels near the Golden Eagle vein 
(unlocated), said to be a short distance north of Miami. This 
placer area includes a group of gulches that were mined in 1933 
and is probably the deposit referred to as the Inspiration placer, 
located north of Claypool (probably in sec. 16 or 17, T. 1 N., R. 
15 E., Globe quadrangle). 

Placers occur in the gravels in Gold Gulch in the Castle Dome 
mining area (west half of T. 1 N., R. 14 E. Inspiration quadrangle). 
The exact location of the placers is uncertain, but the gold probably 
was found in gravels half a mile south of the Castle Dome mine. 

Placer gold was recovered in small amounts from unlocated placers 
along Pinto Creek, which heads near Mount Madera in the Pinal 
Mountains and drains northwestward to the Salt River. One locality 
where gold probably was recovered is the gravels near the junction 
of Pinto Creek and Haunted Canyon (Haunted Canyon quadrangle), 
which were prospected for many years by one man who lived at 
that locality (Nels P. Peterson, written commun., 1969) . 

In the southern part of the Globe-Miami area, placer deposits 
are found in Pinal Creek (Globe and Pinal Peak quadrangles) 
and in Gap and Catsclaw Flats (Pinal Peak quadrangle). Nels P. 
Peterson (written commun., 1969) reported that he was told that 
the gravels were sluiced along the bed of Pinal Creek from about a 
quarter of a mile above 66 Ranch (SW14 sec. 13, T. 1 S., R. 15 E.) 
nearly to the edge of Globe, a distance of about 3i/ 2 miles. 

The placers adjacent to Pinal Creek at Gap and Catsclaw Flat 
(sec. 24, T. 1 S., R. 15 E., Pinal Peak quadrangle) occur in 
an area about 4,000 feet long and 1,500 feet wide east of Pinal Creek 
near 66 Ranch. Gold was also recovered from gravels in Pinal 



12 PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 

Creek on the northeast slope of the Pinal Mountains— near the 
source of Pinal Creek (Pinal Creek quadrangle). There is no 
evidence to suggest placer gold accumulations in Pinal Creek down- 
stream from Globe, although the Old Dominion mine and veins 
system is north of Globe and was once famous for the free gold 
contained in the copper ores. 

Production history: The placers in the Globe-Miami district were 
worked intermittently from the late 1880's until 1961. Most of the 
gold was washed from the gravels of Lost Gulch and Pinal Creek. 
For most years, Lost Gulch was the only placer credited with pro- 
duction; no production directly attributed to Gold Gulch and Pinto 
Creek has been recorded. The gold recovered from Lost Gulch ranges 
from fine to fairly coarse; the largest nugget recovered weighed about 
2 ounces. The placers were mined by sluicing, rocking, or dry- 
washing; daily returns from the placer areas were low. 

Source: The placers have resulted from the erosion of small gold-silver 
and gold-pyrite veins not associated with the copper porphyry 
deposits in the Globe-Miami district. In the vicinity of Lost Gulch, 
numerous small discontinuous pyritic veins occur in the Precam- 
brian schists exposed between Inspiration and the Copper Cities 
mining area; the placers in this gulch probably were derived from 
these deposits. The small placers in Gold Gulch probably were 
derived from the erosion of the Continental vein, which contains 
low concentrations of gold in the copper ore. The source of the 
gold in Pinal Creek area is not known, but probably is the small 
gold-bearing veins in the Precambrian schists exposed in the Pinal 
Mountains. 

Literature: 

Blake, 1899: Notes placers in Lost Gulch; source of gold. 

Engineering and Mining Journal, 1893: Reports recovery of con- 
siderable amounts of coarse gold from Pinto Creek placers. 

Hinton, 1878: Lists mines and placers; cites production of placers. 

Peterson, 1962: Placer deposits are not described; gold-silver veins 
that may be a source of the placers are described. 

Peterson, Gilbert, and Quick, 1951: Notes placers in Gold Gulch; 
describes ores that may be the source of the placer gold. 

Ransome, 1903: Notes placers in Pinal Creek. 

1904b: Notes placers in Lost Gulch, Gold Gulch, and Pinal 

Creek; locates placers in Pinal Creek. 
Trippel, 1888: Production (Pinal Creek and Lost Gulch); locates 

placers. 

1889: Production statistics for 1888 (Pinal Creek and Lost 

Gulch). 



GILA COUNTY 



13 



U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1934, 1935: Production; names of productive 
placer claims. 

Wilson, 1961: Names five placer areas; location; describes gravels 
and size of gold particles (Gap and Catsclaw Flats; Lost Gulch); 
placer mining during the period 1932-33. 

10. BARBAROSSA-DRIPPING SPRING PLACERS (BANNER DISTRICT) 

Location: Flanks of the Dripping Spring Mountains, T. 3 S., R. 15 

E.; T. 4 S., R. 16 E. 
Topographic maps: El Capitan and Hayden 7 1/2-minute quadrangles; 

Christmas 15-minute quadrangle. 
Geologic maps: 

Ransome, 1923a, Geologic map of the Ray quadrangle, scale 1:12,500. 
Willden, 1964, Geologic map and sections of the Christmas quad- 
rangle, Arizona (pi. 1), scale 1:62,500. 
Access: Jeep trails lead 1-2 miles south to placer area from Dripping 
Spring Road at a point about 3 miles west of the junction with 
State Highway 77, 18 miles south of Globe. 
Extent: Placers are found on the southwest and northeast flanks of the 
Dripping Spring Mountains. 

The Barbarossa placer, in the old Troy district, is in the SW. cor. 
sec. 31, T. 3 S., R. 15 E., (Hayden quadrangle) between two forks of 
Steamboat Wash on the southwest flank of the Dripping Spring 
Mountains. The deposit consists of soil and loose detritus developed 
on Troy Quartzite. 

The Dripping Spring placers are in the Dripping Spring district 
near the Cowboy mine on the northeast flank of the Dripping 
Spring Mountains in the NW. cor. sec. 30, T. 3 S., R. 15 E. (El 
Capitan quadrangle). These deposits are found in pediment gravels 
resting on Gila Conglomerate. 

Other placers are reported to occur in the southern end of the 
Dripping Spring Valley north of Christmas in sec. 17, T. 4 S., R. 
16 E. (Christmas quadrangle), about 8 miles southeast of the Drip- 
ping Spring placers. These deposits (properly in the Banner district) 
are found in alluvium in gulches that drain northeast to Dripping 
Spring Valley. 

Production history: The Barbarossa placer was discovered in 1907 — 
the recorded production (1907-13) from this placer is credited to the 
Riverside district on the Southwest flank of the Dripping Spring 
Mountains (Pinal County) by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Apparently, 
only part of the gold recovered from placers on the south flank of 
the Dripping Spring Mountains has been reported, for an estimate 



14 PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 

of gold recovery as high as $2,000-$3,000, including one nugget 
weighing 22 ounces, was made before 1923, and a few prospectors 
worked the gravels intermittently until recent years. 

The placers on the northeast flank of the Dripping Spring Moun- 
tains have been worked intermittently for years; production records 
frequently group the Dripping Spring district and the Banner district, 
making it difficult to differentiate the two localities. The placers 
near the Cowboy mine are in gravels 20-30 feet thick and were 
worked from shafts, tunnels, and underground stopes; about 10 
percent of the gold recovered was finer than 100 mesh, but nuggets 
weighing as much as half an ounce were found. Placer gold worth 
$3,000 reportedly was recovered from these deposits in 1927, but 
this amount was not reported to the U.S. Bureau of Mines and is 
not included in the production table. The placers in the southern 
part of the Dripping Spring Valley have been worked within the 
past 30 years and apparently were worked by a dryland dredge in 
1940. This ground was known as the Bywater claim; Mr. Bywater 
also owned the placer ground in the Dripping Spring district. 
Source: The Troy district, near the crest of the Dripping Spring Moun- 
tains T. 3 S., R. 14 E., was intensely prospected in the early years of 
this century, but no large commercial ore bodies were found. The 
free gold in the Barbarossa placer was probably derived from gold 
localized near the contact between the Devonian Martin Formation 
and the Cambrian Abrigo Formation (N. G. Banks, oral commun., 
1969). 

The placers in the Dripping Spring area near the Cowboy mine 
may have been derived from erosion of the gold-silver vein material 
of the mine. Free gold was reported from bunches of ore near the 
surface of the vein. 

The origin of the placers farther south in the Dripping Spring 
Valley is unknown. 
Literature: 

Mining and Scientific Press, 1907: Barbarossa placer— Reports dis- 
covery of placer gold near head of Steamboat Springs Canyon. 

Ransome, 1923a: Barbarossa placer— location; production; type of 
placer gravels. 

U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1940: Dripping Spring placer— production; 
mining operation located. 

Wilson, 1961: Barbarossa placer— virtually repeats Ransome (1923); 
reports elevation of placer; production. Dripping Spring placer- 
location; type of placer gravels; mining operations (1931-33); size 
of gold particles; production; source. 



GRAHAM AND GREENLEE COUNTIES 



15 



OTHER DISTRICTS 

11. MAZATZAL MOUNTAINS 
Placer gold was recovered between 1910 and 1911 from unknown 
deposits in the vicinity of Mount Ord and Reno Pass (T. 6 N., Rs. 
4-10 E.) in the central Mazatzal Mountains. No information has been 
found describing gold deposits in this area. 

12. YOUNG DISTRICT 
Placer gold was recovered from unlocated deposits along Spring 
Creek, west of Young, in the mesas south of Diamond Butte (probably 
T. 9 N., R. 12 E.). No information has been found describing ore 
deposits in this district. 
Literature: 

Wilson, 1961: States placers recovered in Spring Creek district. 

GRAHAM AND GREENLEE COUNTIES 
13. CLIFTON-MORENCI DISTRICT 

Location: On the west side of the San Francisco River near Clifton 
in the vicinity of the copper-mining area surrounding Morenci, Tps. 
4 and 5 S., Rs. 28 and 29 E. 

Topographic map: Clifton 15-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic maps: 

Lindgren, 1905a, Geologic map and sections of the Clifton-Morenci 

district (pi. 1), scale 1:62,500 (see also Lindgren, 1905b). 
Wilson and Moore, 1958, Geologic map of Graham and Greenlee 

Counties, scale 1:375,000. 
Access: U.S. Highway 666 parallels Chase Creek, west of Clifton, and 
light-duty roads branching off the main highway lead to Gold Gulch, 
Chase Creek, and Morenci Gulch placers. 
Extent: Small placers were mined in gulches draining the hills sur- 
rounding the copper mining area of Morenci. The placers occur in 
Gold Gulch, Chase Creek, and Morenci Gulch. 

Gold Gulch was a noted placer area during the 1870's. The gulch 
flows about 3 miles to the southwest from the southwest side of the 
Morenci open pit to Eagle Creek (T. 4 S., Rs. 28 and 29 E.) . Gold 
Gulch is narrow, and the gold is concentrated in a number of bars 
along the lower course of the creek (sec. 19, T. 4 S., R. 29 E.; 
sec. 25, T. 4 S. R. 28 E.). 

Chase Gulch flows southeast between Copper King Mountain and 
Morenci to Clifton. Placer mining was concentrated between the 
Old Rock House and the town of Clifton (sees. 23-25, T. 4 S., R. 
29 E.). The gold was recovered from tributary gulches and from 



16 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



elevated gravels resting on Gila Conglomerate above the present level 
of Chase Creek. 

Fine flakes of gold were recovered from Morenci Gulch, a south- 
east-flowing tributary of the San Francisco River. Part of Morenci 
Gulch is now covered by the Morenci Tailing Pond; the undis- 
turbed part of the gulch is in sec. 12, T. 5 S., R. 29 E. 
Production history: It is difficult to isolate the recorded production 
from the different creeks in the Clifton-Morenci district from pro- 
duction statistics that include the production for all the placers in 
Graham and Greenlee Counties. Discovery of placer deposits in the 
Clifton-Morenci district in 1870 by ranchers from Silver City, N. 
Mex., stimulated mining interest in the area and copper mining 
began soon afterward. Frederick Remington, a famous western art- 
ist, lived and placered for a year or so at Gold Gulch; Remington 
is said to have uncovered $6,000 in placer gold in 3 weeks by re- 
moving boulders and rocks that covered a depression in which the 
rich gravel had settled. 

During the 20th century placer mining has been done on a small 
scale in Gold Gulch and Chase Creek; the daily earnings per man 
working the Chase Creek placers in 1933 was frequently less than 50 
cents. 

Source: The placer gold was derived from oxidized gold-bearing veins 
associated with the intrusive porphyry and commonly found along 
or near the porphyry-sediment contact. In Gold Gulch, these veins 
are narrow and irregular and occur mostly along both sides of 
Pinkard Gulch and the lower part of Gold Gulch; they were pros- 
pected on a small scale during the late 1800's and produced some 
gold from isolated pockets. 

On the ridge between Chase Creek and Morenci Canyon, gold- 
bearing fissure veins occur associated with a porphyry sill between 
quartzite and limestone; at the Hormeyer mine (sec. 22, T. 4 S., R. 
29 E.) the vein contained a little copper, much lead carbonate, and 
native gold. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Quotes Lingren (1905a). 

Dinsmore, 1911b: Early history of placer mining in Gold Gulch. 
Lindgren, 1905a: Notes presence and location of placers; describes 

gold veins that are probable source of placer gold. 
1905b: Describes gold veins in Gold Gulch; brief history of 

placer mining. 

Mining Reporter, 1906: Notes past placer mining in many gulches; 

describes development in lode-gold mining. 
Moolick and Durek, 1966: Placer discovery. 



GRAHAM AND GREENLEE COUNTIES 



17 



Tovote, 1910: Source of placer gold. 

Wilson, 1961: Virtually repeats Lindgren (1905a, b). Placer-mining 
operations in the early 1930's. 

14. SAN FRANCISCO RIVER PLACERS 

Location: Along the San Francisco River from Dorsey Gulch south to 
the junction with the Gila River, Tps. 4 and 5 S., Rs. 29 and 30 E. 
Topographic maps: Clifton and Guthrie 15-minute quadrangles. 
Geologic maps: 

Lindgren, 1905a, Geologic map and sections of the Clifton-Morenci 

district (pi. 1), scale 1:62,500 (see also Lindgren, 1905b). 
Wilson and Moore, 1958, Geologic map of Graham and Greenlee 
Counties, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: Light-duty road parallels San Francisco River near and north 
of Clifton. Dirt roads lead from U.S. Highway 666 to various points 
along the lower San Francisco River south of Clifton. 

Extent: The placer deposits that occur along the course of the San 
Francisco River are logically divided into two groups. In the part of 
the river north of Clifton, the gold is found in ancient river gravels 
50-60 feet above the level of the present riverbed, from the vicinity 
of Dorsey Gulch (sec. 5, T. 4 S., R. 30 E., Clifton quadrangle) 
south to the vicinity of Clifton (sec. 30, T. 4 S., R. 30 E.) The 
placers in benches of the river near Oroville (sec. 7, T. 4 S., R. 
30 E.) have attracted the most attention. Here, the richest gold- 
bearing layers occur in thin pay streaks in channels at or near bedrock 
on the benches above the riverbed. The Bokares placer, 4 miles north 
of Clifton at Evans Point (sec. 6 or 7, T. 4 S., R. 30 E.), was also 
actively mined. 

South of Clifton, the river is curved and flows between bluffs of 
hard Gila Conglomerate. Gold is contained in old river gravels rest- 
ing on the conglomerate in some of the curves. The Smuggler 
placer mine is at a bend in the San Francisco River in sec. 14, 
T. 5 S., R. 29 E. (Guthrie quadrangle); the gravels here contained 
much fine gold. Placers mined by the "Frisco Placer Mining Com- 
pany" in the early 1900's are probably located in sec. 31, T. 5 S., R. 
29 E. (Guthrie quadrangle) , 8 miles downstream from Clifton. 
The gravels at this placer deposit are 3-12 feet thick. 
Production history: The placers were discovered in the 1870's and 
were actively prospected and developed during the 1880's. At 
that time, much money was spent to develop pipelines and water 
supplies to mine the gravels above Clifton by the hydraulic tech- 
nique; the operations were not a financial success, although a fair 
amount of gold was recovered. The deposits were mined more or less 



18 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



continuously until the 1940's; small-scale mining techniques were 
used, the men frequently tunneling through the gravels to reach 
the richest parts near bedrock. 

The production statistics here are, as for the Clifton-Morenci 
district, difficult to isolate from those of other placer districts in 
Graham and Greenlee Counties; but the bulk of the recorded 
production for the counties was derived from the placers along 
the San Francisco River. 

Source: The placer gold in the San Francisco River above Clifton 
was derived from small gold-bearing veins, associated with porphyry 
dikes, that crop out in Dorsey and Colorado Gulches (for example, 
Colorado, Black Prince, and Golden Eagle veins) and were once 
mined for gold. The gold in the river south of Clifton was probably 
derived from these veins and from the small gold veins around 
Morenci that were the source of gold in the Clifton-Morenci placers. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Quotes Lindgren (1905a). 

Blake, 1899: Location; problems connected with large-scale placer- 
mining operations. 

Burchard, 1882: History of discovery; placer operations in 1881. 

1883: Placer-mining developments; production. 

1884: Location; describes depth of placer gravels. 

Dinsmore, 1911b: Operations of Frisco Placer Mining Co.; history; 
depth of gravels; value of placer gravels. 

Hamilton, 1884: Repeated from Burchard (1884). 

Lindgren, 1905a: Failure of past hydraulic operation; source of 
placers. 

1905b: Location, age, and source of placer gravels. 

Mining Journal, 1938b: Placer-mining operations at Bokares and 

Smuggler placer. 
Mining Reporter, 1906: Location; past mining operations. 
Trippel, 1888: Production for 1887. 

Wilson, 1961: Location; characteristics of gravels; size of gold parti- 
cles; placer operations in 1933. 

15. GILA RIVER PLACERS 

Location: Along the Gila River from the junction of the San Francisco 
River southwest to Bonita and Spring Creeks. Tps. 5 and 6 S., Rs. 28 
and 29 E. 

Topographic map: Guthrie 15-minute quadrangle (Graham and Green- 
lee Counties). 

Geologic maps: 

Heindl and McCullough, 1961, Geologic map and sections showing 



GRAHAM AND GREENLEE COUNTIES 



19 



location of infiltration gallery, mills, and springs, lower Bonita 
Creek area, Graham County, Ariz. (pi. 1), scale 1:68,000. 
Wilson and Moore, 1958, Geologic map of Graham and Greenlee 
Counties, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: Placers are accessible by dirt road that parallels the north 
bank of the Gila River. The road is 1 1/ 2 miles north of Safford. 

Extent: Placers are found along the Gila River below the junction 
of the San Francisco River (Greenlee County) to the mouth of Spring 
Creek (Graham County). Some of the gravels of the Gila Con- 
glomerate between the San Francisco River and Eagle Creek (Green- 
lee County) contain fine flakes of gold. Gold is found in ancient 
river gravels that mantle terraced bluffs of Gila Conglomerate along 
the Gila River downstream from the mouth of Eagle Creek to 
Bonita Creek (Graham County); the gold ranges in size from flakes 
up to wiry particles a quarter of an inch long. About 10-12 miles 
downstream from Eagle Creek, the Gila River makes a wide bend 
between Bonita and Spring Creeks. At this location (approximately 
sec. 20 and 21, T. 6 S., R. 28 E.) an alluvial flat was tested for 
placer gold at the property known as the Neel placer. 

Production history: Placer production from the Gila River has been 
very minor compared with production from the San Francisco 
River. Placer production recorded for Graham County from 1907 
to 1910 was recovered from the area separated into Greenlee 
County in 1910. Placer production from the Gila River in Graham 
County is given under the Lone Star district. 

Some of the deposits along the Gila River between Eagle Creek 
and Bonita Creek are said to carry gold values of 15-50 cents per 
cubic yard. Tests of the Neel placer made in 1933 and 1938 indicate 
that the gravels averaged 60 cents per cubic yard. Actual produc- 
tion from the property was small. 

Source: The origin of the gold in the gravels is unknown, but it was 
probably derived from gold eroded from the Clifton-Morenci district 
and transported by the San Francisco River to the Gila River. Small 
gold veins in the Gila Mountains may have contributed some gold 
to these minor placers. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Quotes Lindgren (1905a). 

Lindgren, 1905a: Notes placer occurrence in lower San Francisco 

River and Eagle Creek; size of gold. 

1905b: Virtually the same description as 1905a. 

Mining Journal, 1938d: Placer-mining operations at Neel Placer; 

gold values per cubic yard. 



20 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Wilson, 1961: Location; characteristics of gravels; size of gold par- 
ticles; gold values per cubic yard. Placer mining in 1933. 

OTHER DISTRICTS 

16. RATTLESNAKE DISTRICT 

Five ounces of gold was recovered in 1932 from an undescribed placer 
in this district, located on the north flank of the Galiuro Mountains 
(Tps. 8 and 9 S., Rs. 19 and 20 E.) in southern Graham County. 

MARICOPA COUNTY 

17. BIG HORN DISTRICT 

Location: Big Horn Mountains southeast of the Harquahala Mountains, 

Tps. 3-5 N., Rs. 8 and 9 W., in particular, T. 5 N., R. 9 W. 
Topographic maps: Aquila 15-minute and Big Horn Mountains 15- 

minute quadrangles. 
Geologic map: Wilson, Moore, and Peirce, 1957, Geologic map of 

Maricopa County, scale 1:375,000. 
Access: From Aquila it is about 10 miles south on light-duty road to 

the Big Horn Mountains. Dirt roads lead to many areas within the 

mountain range. 

Extent: Although placers within the Big Horn Mountains have pro- 
duced notable amounts of placer gold since 1900, very little is known 
about the location and character of the placer deposits. The U.S. 
Bureau of Mines Mineral Yearbooks name five placer claims in the 
district: Big Horn, Sweeney, Tiger, Borian, and Davenport. None of 
these placer claims are accurately located. Most lode mines in the 
area are in T. 5 N., R. 9 W., and it seems reasonable to suggest that 
some placer deposits might be in that general vicinity. 

Production history: Placers were worked in the Big Horn district from 
1933 to 1942; most of the production seems to have been recovered by 
individuals working several placer claims. 

Source: The source of the placer gold is unknown, but the placers 
probably originated by erosion of gold-bearing veins in the Big 
Horn Mountains. 

Literature: 

U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1934-41: Placer production; names of placer 
claims given in the years 1934 (for 1933) , 1935 (for 1934), 1940 
(for 1939), 1940 (review of 1940). 

Wilson, Cunningham, and Butler, 1934: Describes lode mines and 
general geology. 

18. VULTURE DISTRICT 

Location: South flank of the Vulture Mountains in the vicinity of the 
Vulture mine, Tps. 5 and 6 N., Rs. 5 and 6 W. 



MARICOPA COUNTY 



21 



Topographic map: Vulture Mountains 15-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic map: Wilson, Moore, and Peirce, 1957, Geologic map of 
Maricopa County, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Wickenburg it is 14 miles south on Vulture mine road 
to mine and placers in the immediate vicinity. 

Extent: The only description I have found of the placer deposits in 
this district is given by Wilson. The overshadowing importance of the 
Vulture mine is certainly the explanation for the lack of detail about 
the placer ground, which covers an area about 3 miles square in 
Red Top Basin (sees. 24 and 25, T. 6 N., R. 6 W.) and extends for 
a distance of 2 miles southeast of the Vulture mine in Vulture Wash 
(sees. 6 and 7, T. 5 N., R. 5 W.). Red Top Basin is a pediment 
formed on Precambrian schist and mantled by gold-bearing gravels 
generally less than 10 feet thick. The gold is coarse and angular 
and is generally concentrated on bedrock. 

Production history: The placers were apparently worked from the time 
of discovery of the Vulture mine. In the early days of the district (from 
1867 to 1880), many large nuggets weighing about 1/% to 1 ounce 
were recovered, and reportedly, some weighing 5 ounces. Although 
most of the richest gravels were worked out by 1880, small-scale 
drywashing in the area continued from that time until 1948. 

Source: Small gold-bearing quartz veins in the immediate vicinity are 
thought to be the source of the placer gold in Red Top Basin. The 
origin of the gold in Vulture Wash is considered to be partly the 
Vulture vein and partly other small gold veins. 

Literature: 

Wilson, 1961: Location; history; past production; character of placer 
gravels; size of nuggets; origin of placers. 

19. SAN DOMINGO DISTRICT 

Location: South flank of the Wickenburg Mountains, northeast of the 
Hassayampa River, Tps. 6 and 7 N., Rs. 3 and 4 W. 

Topographic maps: Wickenburg and Red Picacho 7i/2-minute quad- 
rangles. 

Geologic map: Wilson, Moore, and Peirce, 1957, Geologic map of 
Maricopa County, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: Jeep trails lead to low hills on north side of U.S. Highway 
60-70-89 near San Domingo Wash, 7 miles southeast of Wickenburg, 
3 miles northwest of Morristown. 

Extent: The placers in the San Domingo district are found in San 
Domingo Wash, its tributaries and adjacent washes, and on mesas 
between gulches. The placer area is southwest of a low range of 
hills that includes the prominent San Domingo Peak; the drainage 



22 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



of the area is southwestward to the Hassayampa River. Many washes 
are mentioned in the literature as scenes of active placer mining, 
but the topographic maps of the area locate only San Domingo Wash, 
which drains through sees. 25 and 26 and 35, T. 7 N., R. 4 W., 
and sees. 2 and 3, T. 6 N., R. 4 W. (Wickenburg quadrangle) and 
Little San Domingo Wash (Tps. 6 and 7 N., R. 3 W., Red Picacho 
quadrangle). Other washes placered are Old Woman Gulch, Rogers 
Wash, American Gulch, Spring Gulch, and Sanger Gulch. Old 
Woman Gulch is described as a southern tributary of San Domingo 
Wash; two tributaries enter San Domingo Wash from the south in 
the placer area— one tributary joins San Domingo Wash in sec. 2, T. 
6 N., R. 4 W., the other, in sec. 5, T. 7 N., R. 4 W. Rogers Wash, 
which has been described by reporters in a series of articles (Carter, 
1911, 1912; Dinsmore, 1911a; Hafer, 1911), is 2i/ 2 miles long and 
is probably the wash located li/ 2 miles northwest of the mouth of 
San Domingo Wash. The principal placer area in Rogers Wash is 
probably in sec. 26, T. 7 N., R. 4 W. (Wickenburg quadrangle). The 
Alibu placer (SE14 sec. 28 T. 7 N., R. 4 W.) is adjacent to the high- 
way midway between this wash and Monarch Wash on the north. 
"Spring Gulch" is probably "Tub Spring Gulch," a headward tribu- 
tary to San Domingo Wash (T. 7 N., R. 3 W.). The other two placer- 
bearing washes are not located. The gravels in the Hassayampa River 
contain gold for a few miles below San Domingo Wash. 
Production history: The San Domingo district has the largest recorded 
placer gold production in Maricopa County and produced continu- 
ously (although on a small scale) from 1905 to 1951. During the 
early 1960's gold was recovered as a byproduct of gravel operations 
and by large-scale operations of a mobile dryland dredge. 

It is not known when the placers were discovered, but the district 
was actively worked during the period 1870-80. It is said that the 
greatest production occurred during this time, when individual 
placer miners recovered $15-$ 100 per day. Old Woman Gulch was a 
large producer in 1875 (one report indicates 1885) , and American 
Gulch reportedly produced "fortunes" for California miners at the 
same time. 

Between 1910 and 1912, the district was actively prospected by 
Mr. John Sanger, who started the Lotowana Mining Co. and planned 
to mine 4,000 acres of placer ground on a large scale. The company 
concentrated its exploration efforts in Rogers Wash, where the 
average value of the ground was 68 cents per cubic yard, but where 
the value of some strips was as high as $1.19 to $1.36 per cubic 
yard. A dam built by Mr. Sanger across San Domingo Wash failed 
because the intended reservoir filled with sand and gravel before 



MARICOPA COUNTY 



23 



operations had finished one season. Actual production by the Loto- 
wana Mining Co. is not known. 

Since 1912 the records indicate only small-scale operations in the 
district until the late 1950's. In 1959 the MacDonald Construction Co. 
recovered gold from gravels that were sorted according to size. Fine 
gravel (minus 3 / 16 in. mesh) contained most of the gold; coarser 
gravel (plus 3 / 16 in. to minus y 4 in.) was sent to a nugget trap part 
of the time. During the period 1960-62 a dryland dredge, 
"Geraldine," owned by United Placers Industries, Inc., worked the 
gravels in the San Domingo district. The operation of this dredge 
received considerable attention in mining journals; but production 
records are confidential, and the success of the operation is not 
known. 

Source: The San Domingo district is predominantly a placer-mining 
district, and there is very little literature available that describes the 
gold-bearing veins. The origin of the placer gold is said to be from 
Precambrian and post-Cambrian veins in the area. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Location; source; virtually repeats information de- 
scribed by Carter (1912). 

Arizona Engineer and Scientist, 1961: Describes dryland dredge; 
average gold values of placer deposits; mining techniques; size of 
gold-bearing gravels. 

Carter, 1911: Location; describes Rogers Wash; character of gravels; 
fineness and shape of gold; accessory minerals; distribution of gold 
in gravels; placer-mining techniques and development. 

1912: Dry washing along the Hassayampa River. Locates Rogers 

Wash; bedrock geology; distribution of gold in gravels; placer- 
mining techniques and development. 

Dinsmore, 1911a: Location; placer-mining developments; history of 
placer mining; early production from placer washes; character of 
placer gravel; grade of gravel. 

Engineering and Mining Journal, 1961: Describes dryland dredge 
"Geraldine"; mining techniques. 

Hafer, 1911: Brief description of placer ground. 

Heikes and Yale, 1913: Describes Rogers Wash; virtually repeats 
articles by Carter; adds no new information. 

Jahns, 1952: Describes pediment gravels; no placer description. 

Roseveare, 1961: Placer-mining operations during the period 1959— 
61; size of gold-bearing gravel fractions. 

Wilson, 1961: Location; history; source of gold; size of nuggets; dis- 
tribution of gold in gravels; gold values in gravels. 



24 PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 

20. CAVE CREEK DISTRICT 

Location: East flank of the New River Mountains, north of Paradise 
Valley, Tps. 6 and 7 N., R. 4 E.. Lower Cave Creek, south of Cactus, 
T. 3 N., R. 3 E. 

Topographic maps: All 7i/ 2 -minute quadrangles— Cave Creek, New 
River Mesa, Sunnyslope. 

Geologic map: Wilson, Moore, and Peirce, 1957, Geologic map of 
Maricopa County, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Phoenix, 42 miles northeast on light-duty road to the 
town of Cave Creek. 

Extent: Very little information other than production records has 
been found relating to the placers in the Cave Creek district. Cave 
Creek heads near Cramm Mountain in the New River Mountains 
(T. 7 N., R. 4 E., unsurveyed) and flows southwest to Deer Valley, 
north of Phoenix. The placers are probably located along Cave 
Creek in the vicinity of the Maricopa and Phoenix gold mines 
(sees. 8 and 9, T. 6 N., R. 4 E., New River Mesa quadrangle). The 
only description of the placers I have found is that written by 
McConnell (1911), who describes a new placer discovery made in 
1910. The ground, which was not located except for the district, 
contains gold-bearing gravels underlying soil and cemented gravels. 
The placers are found from 1 to 16 feet deep between the cement 
layer and bedrock; tests indicate that the ground values average 
85 cents to $5.10 per cubic yard. 

Other placers are apparently found in the Winifred district on 
Cave Creek about 12 miles south of the Cave Creek district. U.S. 
Bureau of Land Management survey plats locate placer claims in 
sec. 22, T. 3 N., R. 3 E. (Sunnyslope quadrangle). 

Production history: The earliest record of placer production from the 
Cave Creek district is for 1888; placers may have been worked before 
that time. Small amounts of placer gold were recovered by transitory 
miners between 1908 and 1915, and 1934 and 1941. From 1939 to 
1941, the small production of the Cave Creek district was combined 
with production from the Camp Creek district in the record. 

The Winifred district produced a small amount of placer gold in 
1932 (amount was not given). 

Source: The paucity of information about the Cave Creek district 
precludes definite conclusions regarding the origin of the placer 
gold. The Maricopa and Phoenix gold mines, the largest lode-gold 
mines in the area, are in quartz veins in altered Precambrian schist. 
These deposits, and possibly other small gold veins, could have been 
the source of the placers in the Cave Creek district. 

The small production of placer gold from the Winifred district 



MARICOPA COUNTY 



25 



may have been derived from the veins found at the Avelina, Divide, 
Corona, and La Fe lode claims. 

Literature: 

McConnell, 1911: Placer ground discovered; thickness and depth of 

placer gravels; average gold value per cubic yard. 
Trippel, 1889: Production statistics for 1888. 

Wilson, Cunningham, and Butler, 1934: Describes lode mines and 
general geology. 

OTHER DISTRICTS 

21. AQUA FRIA DISTRICT 

Placer gold was recovered from Moores Gulch (T. 8 N., Rs. 2 and 
3 E.), a tributary to the Aqua Fria River, north of Lake Pleasant. 
Placer gold was recovered from other areas along the river, but no 
descriptions of any deposits have been found. 

22. DADS CREEK 

Placer gold was recovered in 1935 and reported to the U.S. Bureau 
of Mines. The location of this creek is unknown. 

Literature: 

U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1935: Gives placer production. 

23. EAGLE TAIL MOUNTAINS 

In 1912 a small amount of placer gold was recovered from deposits 
in the Santa Rosa group of claims during assessment work. The Eagle 
Tail Mountains are in western Maricopa County and extend westward 
into Yuma County (Tps. 1 and 2 N., Rs. 10 and 11 W.). I have not 
found the location of the Santa Rosa group. 
Literature: 

U.S. Geological Survey, 1912: Reports placer production. 

24. NEW RIVER DISTRICT 

Placer gold was recovered from this district in 1933. The district 
is on the south slope of the New River Mountains (Tps. 6 and 7 N., 
Rs. 2 and 3 E.) but probably also includes minor deposits located in 
the low hills south of the New River Mountains and north of Deer 
Valley. The Relief mine (sees. 3 and 4, T. 4 N., R. 1 E.), north of 
Peoria and west of the New River, was known as a placer before 1917, 
but only the lode-gold production record was found. The location of 
the placer deposit worked in 1933 is unknown. 
Literature: 

Elsing and Heineman, 1936; Gives lode-gold production. 
Schrader, Stone, and Sanford, 1917: Notes placer occurrence at 
Relief mine. 



26 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



25. PIKES PEAK DISTRICT 

The Pikes Peak district is at the eastern end of the Heiroglyphic 
Mountains, on the west side of the Aqua Fria River (T. 6 N., Rs. 
1 and 2 W.) . Placer gold was recovered from Morgan Wash in this 
district during the period 1939-41 and in 1948. The district is known 
for iron deposits. I have found no descriptions of gold ores. 
Literature: 

U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1939-41, 1948: Production of placer gold. 

26. SUNFLOWER DISTRICT 

Sunflower is on the west slope of the Mazatzal Mountains, north of 
Mount Ord (sec. 13, T. 7 N., R. 8 E.: Reno Pass 7i/ 2 -minute quad- 
rangle). Placer gold was recovered from this area in 1940, but the lo- 
cation of the deposit is unknown. 

MOHAVE COUNTY 
27. CHEMEHUEVIS DISTRICT (GOLD WING DISTRICT) 

Location: Chemehuevis Mountains (also known as the Mohave Moun- 
tains) east of the Colorado River, Tps. 14 and 15 N., Rs. 19 and 20 W. 

Topographic maps: Topock 15-minute quadrangle; Needles 2-degree 
sheet, Army Map Service. 

Geologic map: Wilson and Moore, 1959a, Geologic map of Mohave 
County, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: State Highway 95, 9 miles east of Topock, leads south about 
15 miles to the vicinity of the Chemehuevis Mountains, about 10 
miles north of Lake Havasu City. Dirt roads lead to various placer 
areas. 

Extent: Placer deposits have been worked at many localities in the 
Chemehuevis Mountains, but the deposits cannot be accurately lo- 
cated on topographic maps of the area because mapping of the 
Buck Mountain quadrangle is incomplete. 

From the description of the deposits, it would seem that most 
of the placer-mining activity was concentrated on the southwestern 
flank of the mountains in the area east of the Colorado River. One 
of the deposits, known as the Calizona placer channel, is 1 mile wide 
and 3-5 miles long and trends northwest toward the Colorado River. 
The auriferous gravel is found in a bed of conglomerate or fanglom- 
erate 10-30 feet thick, probably located in or near sees. 26-28, 
T. 15 N., R. 20 W. (Topock quadrangle). Placers were mined in 
the Mexican or Spanish diggings in the vicinity of the Red Hills 
approximately T. 14 N., R. 20 W., Topock quadrangle). In the 
early 1930's placers were mined on the northeastern side of the 



MOHAVE COUNTY 



27 



mountains in Dutch and Printers Gulches (approximately T. 15 N., 
R. 9 W., Needles quadrangle). 

Production history: The Chemehuevis placers reportedly were dis- 
covered in 1857 and have been worked on a small scale since the 
early 1860's, when many miners dry washed the gravels in the Calizona 
placer on the southwest side of the mountains. Many of these 
early miners are said to have recovered as much as $500 per day. 
Tests of the Calizona placer ground made in 1909, indicated a work- 
ing average of $3.40 per cubic yard. 

Gold was recovered from the Fisher Diggings, Silver Creek, the 
"49," Chief, and Prentice Gulch properties; the location of these 
claims is unknown. Tests at the Fisher Diggings made during 1932, 
reportedly indicated an average of $1.15 per cubic yard. 

Source: The lode deposits of the Chemehuevis district are found in 
quartz veins in Precambrian schist. These veins only locally contain 
high gold values associated with pyrite and galena, and, apparently, 
are relatively unoxidized near the surface. The placers are presumably 
derived from these veins. 

Literature: 

Blake, 1899: Notes presence of placer gold. 

Hedburg, 1909: Location; extent and depth of placer gravels; placer- 
mining operations; results of sampling; average value of placer 
ground; size of gold particles. 

Mining Journal, 1932c: Placer-mining operations; average grade of 
gravel at the Fisher diggings. 

Moore, 1969: Date of placer discovery. 

Randolph, 1901: Notes presence of placer gold. 

Wilson, 1961: Location; type of placer gravels; placer operations 

during the period 1932-33. 
Wilson, Cunningham, and Butler, 1934: Describes lode mines in 

the Chemehuevis district which may be source of placer gold. 

28. SAN FRANCISCO DISTRICT (OATMAN DISTRICT) 

Location: West flank of the Black Mountains, Tps. 19 and 20 N., 

Rs. 20 and 21 W. 
Topographic map: Oatman 71/2-minute quadrangle. 
Geologic maps: 

Lausen, 1931, Geologic map of the Oatman district, Mohave County, 

Arizona (pi. 1), scale ~ 1:40,000. 
Ransome, 1923b, Geologic map of the Oatman district, Arizona 

(pi. 1), scale 1:48,000. 
Wilson and Moore, 1959a, Geologic map of Mohave County, scale 

1:375,000. 

Access: From Kingman, about 30 miles west to Oatman on the King- 



28 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



man-Oatman-Topock road; a light-duty road parallels Silver Creek 
wash west of Oatman, and dirt roads lead to small placer areas near 
Oatman. 

Extent: Small placer deposits have been worked in the vicinity of some 
gold mines near Oatman and in the valley of Silver Creek, which 
drains northwest from the Oatman Camp. Three small placers were 
worked in the Oatman area: (1) Placer gold was recovered from 
small side streams tributary to Silver Creek in the vicinity of Mount 
Hardy (sees. 5 and 6, T. 19 N., R. 20 W.). The gold here was of 
two different colors— pale yellow and darker yellow— and might not 
have been recovered from the same stream. The size of the gold from 
this locality varied from small flat flakes to particles as large as the 
size of wheat grains. (2) Placer gold was recovered from different 
points along a small stream below the Pioneer mine (sec. 2, T. 19 N., 
R. 20 W.) The gold here was mostly fine particles and occurred 
within 3 feet of bedrock. (3) Placer gold was recovered from gravels 
below the Moss Vein (sec. 19, T. 20 N., R. 20 W.) , 2 miles north of 
Silver Creek. According to Lausen (1931, p. 89), one important ore 
shoot on the Moss veins contains coarse gold, and he suggests that 
the placer gold was coarse. 

In addition to the small amounts of placer gold recovered in the 
vicinity of the Oatman Camp, gold was recovered from the valley of 
Silver Creek, about 5 miles northwest of Oatman (possibly from 
the gravels found in sees. 31 and 32, T. 20 N., R. 20 W.). This de- 
posit was tested in 1923 and during the period 1932-33, and, although 
one report indicates that gold values in the 5 feet above bedrock 
were high and that the average value might be $1 per cubic yard, 
the amount of gold in the gravels was apparently not sufficient to 
encourage mining operations. The gold is found in the gravel which 
overlies an irregular pediment formed on volcanic rocks. 

Production history: The richest lode-gold mining area in Mohave 
County is the San Francisco district. Placer-gold production from 
this district has been negligible compared with lode production, 
despite the fact that placers have been worked since about 1865. 
Although the placers in Silver Creek were prospected and large sums 
of money expended to investigate the gold-bearing gravels, very 
little production was recorded. Apparently, most of the placer mining 
in the district was done on a very small scale. 

Source: The small amount of placer gold found in the district was 
derived from the gold-quartz-calcite veins in Tertiary igneous rocks 
that formed in late Tertiary time. Lausen (1931, p. 88-89) suggests 
several factors that might be responsible for the lack of rich placer 
deposits. The most important is the small size of the gold in the 



MO HAVE COUNTY 



29 



ores; these small particles could be transported for a long distance 
during floods. Owing to lack of water, the deposits were mined by 
drywashing machines, which cannot collect fine gold. 
Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Notes placer occurrence along Silver Creek- 
Arizona Mining Journal, 1924: Reports discovery of buried gravels 

averaging $1.50 per yard (with gold valued at $20.67 per oz). 
Doman, 1922: Notes placer-mining activity about 1865. 
Lausen, 1931: Locates three placers in Oatman area; size of gold 
particles; source; reasons for general absence of placers in impor- 
tant lode district. 

Mining Journal, 1932b: Reports production from gravels below 

Warner Gulch. 
Ransome, 1923b: Placer-mining operations in Silver Creek. 
Salt Lake Mining Review, 1923: Placer-mining developments in 

Silver Creek; depth of gold-bearing gravels; thickness of rich layer; 

average value of gravels. 
Wilson, 1961: Placer-mining operations during the period 1932-33 

in Silver Creek; geologic occurrence of gravels; fineness of gold. 

29. KINGMAN AREA PLACERS (McCONNICO AND MAYNARD DISTRICTS) 

Location: Northeast flank of the Hualapai Mountains on Kingman 

Mesa; northwest flank of the Hualapai Mountains. T. 20 N., R. 17 W.; 

Tps. 20 and 21 N., R. 16 W. 
Topographic maps: Kingman 7i/2" mmute quadrangle; Kingman and 

Williams 2-degree sheets, Army Map Service. 
Geologic map: Wilson and Moore, 1959a, Geologic map of Mohave 

County, Arizona, scale 1:375,000. 
Access: From Kingman, 3 miles south on U.S. Highway 66 to Lewis 

placer area; 6 miles southeast from Kingman on dirt roads to Lookout 

placer area. 

Extent: Three minor placer deposits occur in gravels in the low hills 
near Kingman. The Lewis placer and the Boulder Creek placer are 
in the McConnico mining district southwest of Kingman; the Look- 
out placer is in the Maynard mining district southeast of Kingman. 

The Lewis placer is on the property of the Bi-Metal gold mine 
(sec. 4, T. 20 N., R. 17 W.). The placer gold is found in some small 
gullies within, or at the border of, the mineralized granite on King- 
man Mesa. Some nuggets worth 50 cents were recovered from the 
area. 

The Boulder Creek placer is near the Boulder Creek group of lode 
claims (approximately sec. 10, T. 20 N., R. 17 W.); the gold veins 
were located in 1906 after tracing detrital gold to the outcrops. 

The Lookout placer is at the north end of the Hualapai Moun- 



30 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



tains (Tps. 20 and 21 N., R. 16 W.). The placers are found in 
areas of shallow gulch and hillside gravels, but the exact location is 
uncertain. 

Production history: Most of the placer gold known to have been re- 
covered from the Kingman area placers was recovered from the 
Lewis placer between 1932 and 1933. A. E. Lewis reportedly re- 
covered $6 to $10 per day at the Bi-Metal property using two sluices. 
Wilson (1961, p. 34) states that $150 in placer gold was recovered 
from the Lookout placer during the 1932-33 season, but this recovery 
was apparently not reported to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. 

Source: The Lewis placer resulted from the erosion of free gold con- 
centrated in cavities created by the oxidation of pyrite in the 
granite at the Bi-Metal property. The Boulder Creek placer re- 
sulted from the erosion of parts of the Boulder Creek group of 
veins. The origin of the Lookout placer is unknown. 

Literature: 

Engineering and Mining Journal, 1933b: Production in 1933; loca- 
tion of placer ground. 
1933d: Results of sampling Lewis placer. 

Schrader, 1909: Lewis placer— location; size of gold particles; source. 

Boulder Creek placer— location; source. 
Wilson, 1961: Location; production for 1932-33. 

30. COLORADO RIVER PLACERS 

Location: Along the Colorado River from the mouth of the Grand 
Canyon south to Topock. Tps. 22, 27, 29, N., R. 22 W.; T. 31 
N., R. 19 W. (projected). 

Topographic maps: All 15-minute quadrangles— Virgin Basin, Black 
Canyon, Mount Perkins, Spirit Mountain. 

Geologic maps: 

Longwell, 1936, Area near Colorado River between Black Canyon 
and the head of Boulder Canyon (pi. 2), scale 1 in. = about 
ls/ 4 miles; area near Colorado River between Virgin-Detrital Val- 
leys and head of Iceberg Canyon (pi. 3), scale 1 in. = about 
ly 4 miles; area near Virgin River south of St. Thomas (pi. 4), 
scale 1 in. = about ls/ 4 miles. 

Longwell, 1963, Geologic map and sections of area along Colorado 
River between Lake Mead and Davis Dam, Arizona and Nevada 
(pi. 1), scale 1:125,000. 

Wilson and Moore, 1959a, Geologic map of Mohave County, scale 
1:375,000. 

Access: From Kingman, the placers along the Colorado River can be 
reached by the following routes: To the Temple Bar area— 42 miles 
northwest on U.S. Highway 93 to improved road which leads north 



MOHAVE COUNTY 



31 



about 24 miles to Temple Bar. To the Willow Beach area— 56 miles 
northwest on U.S. Highway 93 to Willow Beach road; an improved 
road leads about 4 miles west to Willow Beach placer area. To the 
Eldorado Canyon area— 46 miles north on U.S. Highway 93 to a dirt 
road that leads 12 miles west to the vicinity of the placer area op- 
posite Eldorado Canyon. To the Pyramid Rock area— 30 miles west 
on State Highway 68 to Davis Dam; dirt road leads north from 
Davis Dam about 7 miles to the placer area. 
Extent: Placer gold has been recovered from many locations along the 
Colorado River. Four locations have been described in the literature, 
and placer gold was probably recovered from other localities as well. 
Placer gold was found at Temple Bar on the Colorado River north 
of the White Hills (T. 31 N., R. 19 W., projected; Virgin Basin 
quadrangle). The gravel containing fine gold was apparently found 
on both the Arizona and the Nevada side of the river; the gravel 
bar was inundated by the waters of Lake Mead. 

Coarse gold was said to be found at Willow Beach near an outer 
bow of the Colorado River (T. 29 N., R. 22 W., Black Canyon 
quadrangle). The bar covers an area of about 250 square feet and 
rests upon an irregular surface of gneissic granite. 

Sand bars opposite Eldorado Canyon on the Arizona side of the 
Colorado River (T. 27 N., R. 22 W., Mount Perkins quadrangle) 
contain finely divided gold. 

Some moderately coarse gold was recovered from a bench near 
the river about 2 14 miles north of Pyramid Rock. Apparently, this 
locality now lies beneath Lake Mohave about 4 miles north of Davis 
Dam (T. 22 N., R. 22 W., Spirit Mountain quadrangle). 
Production history: Recorded production from the Colorado River 
placers is very small. In 1895 a large hydraulic plant was constructed 
at Temple Bar, but the enterprise quickly met with failure because 
of the high cost of transporting materials to the area. Placer gold 
was recovered from this placer in 1935 before inundation of the 
riverbed by Lake Mead. According to Wilson (1961, p. 34-35), the 
placer at Willow Beach was worked before 1900, in 1920, and in 
1931, but I have found no production record. In 1909 a suction-type 
dredge was installed to work the gravels opposite Eldorado Canyon, 
but the dredge failed to extract the fine gold on the first try and 
subsequently was destroyed during the high waters in the spring of 
1910. No production record was found for the locality near Pyramid 
Rock. 

Source: The source of the placer gold at these localities is unknown, 
but the occurrence of gold-bearing lodes in the surrounding region 
suggests that much of the gold may be locally derived. 



32 PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Placer-mining operations during the period 1909-10 
opposite Eldorado Canyon. 

Blake, 1899: Temple Bar placers— operation; grade of gravel; source. 

Lausen, 1931: Pyramid Rock placer— notes presence of gold north- 
west of the Catherine district. 

Randolph, 1903: Failure of placer-mining operations at Temple Bar. 

U.S. Geological Survey, 1910: Failure of placer-mining operations 
opposite Eldorado Canyon. 

Wilson, 1961: Willow Beach placer— location; extent; type of bed- 
rock; size of gold; source; placer-mining operations; production. 
Eldorado Canyon placer— failure of placer operations. Pyramid 
Rock placer— location; size of gold. 

31. GOLD BASIN AND LOST BASIN DISTRICT 

Location: On the east flank of the While Hills and on the east and west 
flanks of the Lost Basin Range, south of Lake Mead, Tps. 29 and 
30 N., Rs. 17 and 18 W. 

Topographic map: Garnet Mountain 15-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic map: Wilson and Moore, 1959a. Geologic map of Mohave 
County, Arizona, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Kingman, 29 miles north on U.S. Highway 93 to Pierce 
Ferry Road; this road leads northeast about 22 miles to the Gold 
Basin area and 30 miles to the Lost Basin area. 

Extent: The placers in the Gold Basin and Lost Basin districts are 
found in three major areas: the east and west flanks of the Lost 
Basin Range and the detrital fan in Gold Basin on the east flank 
of the White Hills. The placers on the east flank of the Lost Basin 
Range are found in arroyos incised in bajada gravels of late Miocene 
and early Pliocene age which cover an area of 8-10 square miles. 
Many individuals have dry washed the placers at various localities. 
Five major placer claims are located along this flank of the range. 
These are the Robeson and Joy lease (sec. 14, T. 30 N., R. 17 W.), 
the Queen Tut placer (sees. 27 and 34, T. 30 N., R. 17 W.), the 
Golden Nugget placer (near the intersection of sees. 33 and 34, 
T. 30 N., R. 17 W.; sees. 3 and 4, T. 29 N., R. 17 W.), the King Tut 
placer (sec. 9, T. 29 N., R. 17 W.), and the Lone Jack placer 
(sec. 16, T. 29 N., R. 17 W.). The King Tut placer was the most 
actively mined placer in the area, and the east flank of the Lost 
Basin Range is frequently called the King Tut placer area. 

On the west flank of the Lost Basin Range, small-scale mining of 
placers found in Quaternary alluvial fans is still active. These placers 
occupy an area comparable in size to the placer ground on the east 



MOHAVE COUNTY 



33 



side of the range and are located in the eastern rows of T. 29 and 30 
N., R. 17 W. 

The gold-bearing gravels of the Gold Basin district are found in 
arroyos and gulches on the large detrital fan that slopes eastward 
from the White Hills to Hualapai Wash and is traversed by White 
Elephant Wash and its tributaries. The Searles placer mine is in 
sec. 29, T. 29 N., R. 18 W. 
Production history: The placers in the Gold Basin and Lost Basin 
districts were first actively mined in 1931, about 60 years after the 
discovery of lode gold. Placer gold was recovered from the Gold 
Basin district in 1909, but, probably because of the isolation of the 
district, apparently no further placer mining was done until 1931. 
Placer-mining activity since the early 1930's has been almost con- 
tinuous but on a small scale. A few mining operations have used 
power shovels and small dry-concentrating plants to mine the gravels, 
but most activity was with the small portable drywasher so prevalent 
in the Southwest. 

Owing to the relatively late development of the placers, early 
miners were able to sample virtually untouched placer ground in 
this area. On the east flank of the Lost Basin Range, the richer 
gold-bearing gravels are generally less than 2 feet thick and rest on 
caliche-cemented gravels. The gold contained in these surface gravels 
ranges in size from fine dust to nuggets as much as three-quarters 
of an ounce; in 1941, a nugget valued at $140 (4 oz) was recovered 
from a placer near the King Tut. Extensive sampling of one section 
at the King Tut placers in 1933 indicated that the average value of 
the placers was $1.17 per cubic yard. 

The gold-bearing gravels of the Gold Basin area are 1-3 feet 
thick and rest on cemented gravels. The gold ranges in size from 
fine to coarse; fragments found range in value from 5 cents to $3.50. 
The gold is reported to be erratically distributed; thin streaks that 
yield more than $1.00 per cubic yard are found, but most arroyo 
gravels contain less than $1.00 per cubic yard. 

Source: Recent work by the U.S. Geological Survey indicates that 
there are many small gold-quartz-carbonate-sulfide veins in the 
Precambrian rocks. Gold derived from some of these veins is the 
probable source of the placers. 

Literature: 

Blacet, 1969: Brief summary of type of lode deposits; notes presence 

of scheelite in the placers. 
Engineering and Mining Journal, 1933b: Placer-mining activity in 

1933; location of placer area sampled. 
1941: Size of nuggets. 



34 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Mining Journal, 1933: Placer-mining operations; average value of 
placer gravels at King Tut placer. 

U.S. Geological Survey, 1968: Extent and age of placers; average 
value of placers; source of gold. 

Wilson, 1961: Location; placer-mining operation during the period 
1932-33; extent and thickness of gravels, accessory minerals; aver- 
age value of gravels; size of gold particles; source. 

OTHER DISTRICTS 

32. COTTONWOOD DISTRICT 

Placer gold has been recovered intermittently from small deposits in 
Wright Creek on the northeast side of the Cottonwood Mountains (Tps. 
22 and 23 N., Rs. 11 and 12 W.). 
Literature: 

Wilson, 1961: Reports presence of placer gold in Wright Creek. 

33. OWENS (McCRACKEN) DISTRICT 

Small amounts of placer gold have been recovered from unlocated 
placers in this district, located in the McCracken Mountains (T. 13 N., 
Rs. 14 and 15 W.) . No description of the placer gold occurrence has 
been found. 

34. WALLAPAI DISTRICT 

Less than 1 ounce of placer gold was recovered from this district, 
located on the west side of the Cerbat Mountains. The district is 
famous for rich lead-zinc ores with silver and gold as byproducts. Gold 
occurs in galena and sphalerite in moderately oxidized ores. 
Literature: 

Koschmann and Bergendahl, 1968: Describes lode deposits. 

PIMA COUNTY 
35. ALDER CANYON PLACERS 

Location: Northeast slope of Santa Catalina Mountains, T. 11 S., 

Rs. 16 and 17 E. 
Topographic map: Bellota Ranch 15-minute quadrangle. 
Geologic map: Wilson, Moore, and O'Haire, 1960, Geologic map of 

Pima and Santa Cruz Counties, scale 1:375,000. 
Access: Alder Canyon, about 10 miles southeast of Oracle, is accessible 

by dirt roads leading from town along the flank of the mountains. 
Extent: Coarse placer gold is found in dissected bars and benches 

along Alder Canyon and on spurs between tributary gulches from 

near the Coronado National Forest boundary (sec. 13, T. 11 S., R. 

16 E.) to within a few miles of the San Pedro River (east margin of 

T. 11 S., R. 17 E.). 



PIMA COUNTY 



35 



Production history: The placers were reportedly worked intermittently 
for many years, but many miners were transient and stayed only a 
short while, having recovered very little gold. Recorded production 
is small and for some years included with production from the Old 
Hat district. 

Source: Unknown. 

Literature: 

Wilson, 1961: Location, extent, size of gold; placer-mining activity 

during the period 1932-33; production. 
U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1935: Gives production for 1934 from Alder 

Canyon credited to Old Hat district. 

36. GREATERVILLE DISTRICT 

Location: East flank of the Santa Rita Mountains, T. 19 S., Rs. 15 
and 16 E. 

Topographic maps: All 15-minute quadrangles— Sahuarita, Empire 

Mountains, Mount Wrightson, and Elgin. 
Geologic maps: 

Drewes, 1971a, Geologic map of the Mount Wrightson quadrangle, 
scale 1:48,000. 

1971b, Geologic map of the Sahuarita quadrangle, Pima County, 

scale 1:48,000. 

Hill, 1910, Sketch map of the Greaterville, Arizona, placer camp. 

Access: The Greaterville area is accessible by roads that lead 5 miles 
west from State Highway 83, about 8 miles north of Sonoita on the 
junction with State Highway 82. 

Extent: The placers in the Greaterville district are found in streams 
that drain easterly from the Melendrez Pass area in the Santa Rita 
Mountains to the Cienega Valley. The deposits are in the southeastern 
part of T. 19 S., R. 15 E., and in the southwestern part of T. 19 S., R. 
16 E. The gold-bearing gulches are, from north to south: Empire, 
Chispa, Colorado, Los Pozos, Hughes, Ophir, Nigger, and St. Louis 
Gulches, tributaries to Hughes; Louisiana, Graham, Sucker, Har- 
shaw, Kentucky, and Boston. Placers were found not only in the 
gulch gravels but also in gravels on the hillsides and ridgetops be- 
tween gulches. Hill (1910) describes the distribution of the gold- 
bearing gravels in each gulch in detail, and, as his report is well 
known, I will only summarize his description. 

In general, the gold is found in the lower 2 feet of angular gravel 
overlying bedrock and underlying less rich gravels; in places, the 
gold was concentrated in natural riffles in the sedimentary bedrock. 
The gold recovered ranged in size from flakes to large nuggets. Hill 
(1910, p. 20) states that the gold washed in 1909 ranged from small 
flakes to particles 0.1 inch in greatest dimension. Most of the largest 



36 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



nuggets were recovered during the early mining period in the dis- 
trict; at that time (1874-86) nuggets worth $1 to $5 (about 1 / 2 o- 1 / 4 
oz) were common, and one nugget weighing 37 ounces was found. 

Production history: The early production is not accurately known. 
For gold recovered before 1900, estimates range from as high as $7 
million to as low as $500,000. During the 20th century the placers 
have been worked continually by many individuals using rockers. 
Much of the placer ground has been reworked several times, but a 
considerable amount of gold is said to remain in the gravels. Various 
attempts have been made to mine the gravels in different gulches 
using hydraulic or dredge mining methods, but thickness of over- 
burden made large-scale mining unprofitable. In 1948 a dragline 
shovel and dryland washing plant treated 90,000 cubic yards of 
gravel from Louisana Gulch, recovering 535 ounces of gold, an 
average of 21 cents per cubic yard (or 0.006 oz per cubic yard). 
This was the largest amount of gold recorded from the placers in 
any one year during the 20th century. 

Source: The placer gold was derived from erosion of free gold-bearing 
veins genetically related to a quartz latite porphyry (dated at 55.7 
±1.9 m.y.) intrusive into Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. These 
veins are found near the heads of the gulches and have been mined 
for the gold content at the Yuba, St. Louis, and Quebec mines. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Virtually repeats information described by Hill (1910). 

Adds information about placer-mining operations in 1914. 
Black, 1890: Past placer-mining activity. 

Blake, 1898: Describes late Pleistocene bison remains found in placer 
deposit. 

1899: Detailed description of placers. Includes location; names 

of placer gulches; size of nuggets; placer-mining operations; source 
of placer gold; repeats part of earlier description by Black (1890). 
Describes separately size of nuggets found in the "Smith district" 
now known as Greaterville. 

Burchard, 1882: Placer-mining activity at Hughes Gulch is noted. 

1884: History; production. 

1885: History; size of nuggets; placer-mining operations; tech- 
niques; production. 

Drewes, 1970: Describes mineralization in district; distribution of 
gold. 

Gardner and Johnson, 1935: Placer-mining techniques by drift min- 
ing. 

Heikes and Yale, 1913: Thickness of placer gravels; gold values per 
cubic yard; fineness of gold; production from 1903 to 1912. 



PIMA COUNTY 



37 



Hill, 1910: Detailed description; extent, thickness, and character 
of gravels; size and fineness of gold; bedrock geology; placer- 
mining techniques, operations; production. 

Hinton, 1878: Notes placer occurrence; size of large nugget. 

Koschmann and Bergendahl, 1968: Location; source; production. 

Maynard, 1907: Detailed description of sampling. Grades of gravel 
given for each gulch. 

Randolph, 1901: Production estimates. 

Raymond, 1875: Reports placer ground on the east side of the 
Santa Rita Mountains; names prospectors who made discoveries. 

1877: Repeats information of newspaper article describing new 

discovery of placer gold at Greaterville; size of nuggets; methods 
of mining district; refers to as "Smith district"; does not locate 
district; names miners. 

Root, 1915: Placer mining in 1914; average grade of gravel; depth 
of water "sufficient for dredging purposes." 

Schrader, 1915: Virtually repeats Hill's (1910) description. 

Wilson, 1961: Placer-mining activity during the period 1874-1948; 
history; quotes Schrader (1915); production; source. 

37. ARIVACA DISTRICT (LAS GUIJAS PLACERS) 

Location: The Las Guijas and San Luis Mountains, Tps. 20 and 21 S., 

Rs. 9 and 10 E. 
Topographic map: Arivaca 15-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic map: Wilson, Moore, and O'Haire, 1960, Geologic map of 
Pima and Santa Cruz Counties, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Arivaca Junction on U.S. Highway 89, it is 23 miles west 
on light-duty road to Arivaca. Many roads lead to placer areas in 
the surrounding mountains. 

Extent: Placer gold has been found in most of the gravels that mantle 
the flanks of the Las Guijas Mountains and in many gulches that 
head in the mountains. Most of the placer mining was concentrated 
on the northeast flank of the range, south of Las Guijas Creek; here, 
mesa gravels between the edge of the mountains and the creekbed 
are notably gold bearing for a length of 2y 2 miles and a width of 
1 mile (sec. 25, T. 20 S., R. 9 E., sees. 30-32, T. 20 S., R. 10 E.). 
Durzano and Pesqueria Gulches (sec. 32, T. 20 S., R. 10 E.; sec. 5, 
T. 21 S., R. 10 E.) also contain placer gold. 

Placers are found in the gravels in large basins and wide arroyos 
on the southern slope of the Las Guijas Mountains, northeast of 
Arivaca Wash (NEi/ 4 and NW14 T. 21 S., Rs. 9 and 10 E.). Ap- 
parently the gold in these gravels, in contrast to the placers on the 
north side of the mountains, is irregularly distributed. 



38 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Farther south, in San Luis Canyon (vicinity of the SE. cor. T. 
21 S., R. 9 E.), placers are reported in some interarroyo bench gravels 
on the dissected pediment in that area. 

Production history: The placers in the Arivaca district have been 
worked since, and possibly before, the 1850's. The occurrence of placer 
gold in the region was so well known that the mountains were 
named "Guijas," which means rubble or conglomerate in which 
placer gold is usually found. The early production of placer gold 
from the area is unknown, but it has been estimated to be about 
$150,000. In the 1850's Ignacio Pesqueria and a band of followers 
defeated in a revolution in Mexico fled to the Las Guijas area, 
where they obtained sufficient gold from the gravels to finance an- 
other revolution that in 1856 enabled Pesqueria to become Governor 
of the State of Sonora, Mexico. 

Since that time, placer mining has continued in the district with 
varying degrees of intensity. In 1905 the New Venture Placer Mining 
Co. made plans to mine the gravels by hydraulic techniques after 
sampling that indicated an average of $1.69 per cubic yard on tests 
of 4,800 cubic yards but apparently did not begin operations. The 
same company mined the placers in Durzano, Pesqueria, and Yaqui 
Gulches in 1915 with a Clark agitating sluice, which uses small 
amounts of water. Later, in 1983, the pediment and gulch gravels 
at the northern foot of the Las Guijas Mountains were worked on 
a large scale; the gold-bearing gravels contained much black sand 
and some cinnabar. Placer wolframite was recovered from gravels in 
the low range of hills north of Las Guijas Creek. 

Source: The geology of the Arivaca district is poorly known. Many 
prospects and mining claims are located in the Las Guijas Mountains, 
and the placer gold was undoubtedly derived from local gold-bearing 
veins, the occurrence and nature of which is unknown. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Location; extent of placer gravel; source; thickness of 
gravel; distribution, size, and shape of gold particles; placer-mining 
operations; gold values per cubic yard. 

Bryan, 1925: Definition of "Guijas." 

Trippel, 1888: Notes placer-mining activity. 

Willis, 1915: Location; history; production estimates; thickness and 
extent of placer gravels; character of gold particles; grades of 
gravel; distribution or gold in gravel. 

Wilson, 1941: Reports wolframite placers. 

1961: Location; history, placer-mining activity during the pe- 
riod 1932-33; source. 



PIMA COUNTY 



39 



38. SIERRITA MOUNTAINS PLACERS (PAPAGO AND PIMA DISTRICTS) 

Location: Southeast and southwest flanks of the Sierrita Mountains, 

T. 18 S., Rs. 10 and 12 E. 
Topographic maps: Palo Alto Ranch and Twin Buttes 15-minute 

quadrangles. 

Geologic map: Wilson, Moore, and O'Haire, 1960, Geologic map of 
Pima and Santa Cruz Counties, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Sahuarita on U.S. Interstate 19, it is about 15 miles west 
on improved roads to Sierrita Mountains. Dirt roads lead to placers 
on the flanks of the mountains. 

Extent: Placer gold is found in two areas in the Sierrita Mountains- 
Ash Creek in the Papago district and Armargosa Arroyo in the Pima 
district. 

Ash Creek drains the southwest flank of the Sierrita Mountains; 
the placer is located in the vicinity of the Sunshine-Sunrise group of 
mining claims (sec. 12, T. 18 S., R. 10 E.; sec. 7, T. 18 S., R. 11 E.; 
Palo Alto Ranch quadrangle). Placers were also found in Pascola 
Canyon, not identified on the topographic map. 

The placer in Armargosa Arroyo and tributaries in the Tinaja 
Hills (southeast flank of the Sierrita Mountains) is in sees. 20, 21, 
28, and 29, T. 18 S., R. 12 E. (Twin Buttes quadrangle). The topo- 
graphic map shows "Tinaja Wash" in this area. The gold was 
recovered from gravels in the arroyo and its tributaries and from 
the thin soil on the hillside. 

Production history: The recorded production from these placers is 
small, but the placers are said to have been worked before the 
discovery of gold in California and reportedly produced considerable 
amounts of gold before records were kept. Elsing and Heineman 
(1936, p. 98) attribute a placer production of $250,000 to the Papago 
district placers; this sum may be an estimate of the early production 
of the area. 

Source: Unknown. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Location; placer-mining operations. 
Browne, 1868: History; early date of placer mining. 
Elsing and Heineman, 1936: Placer-production estimate for Papago 
placers. 

Wilson, 1961: Location, production for Papago district. Location, 
placer-mining activity; accessory minerals in placers for Pima dis- 
trict. 

39. BABOQUIVARI DISTRICT 

Location: East and west flanks of the Baboquivari Mountains. T. 18 S., 
R. 7 E.; T. 20 S., R. 8 E. 



40 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Topographic maps: Presumido Peak and Baboquivari Peak 15-minute 
quadrangles. 

Geologic map: Wilson, Moore, and O'Haire, 1960, Geologic map of 
Pima and Santa Cruz Counties, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: State Highway 286 parallels the east flank of the Baboquivari 
Mountains, and service roads lead about 8 miles west from the high- 
way to mining areas. 

Extent: Placer gold is found about 5 or 6 miles southeast of Baboqui- 
vari Peak at the eastern foot of the mountains. The gold-bearing 
gravels range in thickness from 6 to 1 1 feet and are found in benches 
and bars along a large east-trending wash (Placeritos Wash or 
Shaffer Wash, T. 20 S., R. 8 E., Presumido Peak quadrangle); the 
gravels contain many boulders and some clay. 

The Fresnal placer claims are near the Lost Horse lode claims in 
the Baboquivari Mountains; the location of these claims is not known 
to me, but the name suggests Fresnal Canyon on the west side of the 
mountains near the Allison lode-gold mine (T. 18 S., R. 7 E., pro- 
jected, Baboquivari Peak quadrangle). 

Production history: The placers in the Baboquivari district were dis- 
covered during, or shortly before, the early 1930's; since that time, 
production has been small, and gold recovery was reported for only 
4 years (1935, 1938, 1940, 1958). During 1933, the Edna J. Gold 
Placer Mines, Inc., leased 680 acres in the placer area on the east side 
of the mountains; the company planned to work a bar of gravel that 
contained about 50,000 cubic yards of gravel reportedly averaging 
65 cents per cubic yard. In 1938 another company held the Fresnal 
placer claims. Apparently, there was very little development of 
these placer claims, as there is no record of any large-scale mining 
operations in the area. 

Source: Unknown. 

Literature: 

Mining Journal, 1938a: Placer-mining developments at the Fresnal 
Placers. 

Wilson, 1961: Placers at eastern side of Baboquivari Mountains- 
location, extent; placer-mining activity; average grade of gravels, 
depth of gravels. 

40. CABABI (COMOBABI) DISTRICT 

Location: Southeastern side of the South Comobabi Mountains. T. 17 

S., R. 5 E. (projected; on Papago Indian Reservation). 
Topographic map: Sells 15-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic map: Wilson, Moore, and O'Haire, 1960, Geologic map of 

Pima and Santa Cruz Counties, scale 1:375,000. 
Access: The main mining area and placers are about 4 miles north 



PIMA COUNTY 



41 



of State Highway 86, 5 miles east of Sells, the Papago Indian Res- 
ervation Headquarters. Dirt roads lead from the highway north 
to the mining area. 

Extent: Placer deposits of unknown extent are in the vicinity of the 
Jaeger gold mine (approximately sec. 3, T. 17 S., R. 5 E.). The 
Jaeger mine is on an undulating pediment formed on shales at the 
eastern margin of the south side of the South Comobabi Mountains. 

Production history: Placer gold has been produced sporadically from 
this area since 1911. Apparently, most of the work was done by 
Mexican and Indian miners, who sold the gold to the merchants 
at Sells (formerly called Indian Oasis, a name once applied to the 
Cababi district by the U.S. Geological Survey) from 1911 to 1915. 

Source: Gold-bearing quartz veins occur in the southeastern part of 
the South Comobabi Mountains. Gold occurs associated with iron 
oxides in the oxidized parts of the veins. At the Jaeger mine, several 
narrow gold-quartz veins form the lode; similar veins probably were 
the source of the placer gold. 

Literature: 

Mining Journal, 1946: Reports location and development of Jaeger 
lode claims and prospecting of adjacent placer claims. 

U.S. Geological Survey, 1914-15: Reports placer mining in "Indian 
Oasis" district. 

Wilson, Cunningham, and Butler, 1934: Describes lode mines in 
district. 

41. QUIJOTOA DISTRICT 

Location: East and west flanks of the Quijotoa Mountains. Tps. 15 
and 16 S., R. 2 E. (projected; on Papago Indian Reservation). 

Topographic map: Quijotoa Mountains 15-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic map: Wilson, Moore, and O'Haire, 1960, Geologic map of 
Pima and Santa Cruz Counties, Arizona, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Tucson, 82 miles west on State Highway 86 to Quijotoa; 
dirt roads lead into the mountains. 

Extent: The placers in the Quijotoa Mountains apparently are widely 
distributed, for some reports indicate placers as far south as the 
international boundary. The deposits have been mined by Papago 
Indians and Mexicans since 1774, but information regarding the 
locations of the deposits mined between 1774 and 1849 is lost. Since 
1880 most of the placer-mining activity apparently has been con- 
centrated in the area around Quijotoa, Covered Wells (Maish 
Vaya), and Pozo Blanco (Stoa Vaya). The specific deposits described 
in the literature are difficult to locate because the area is within the 
Papago Indian Reservation and sections are not surveyed and gulch 
and claim names given to the placer claims by miners have not been 



42 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



retained. Placers were recovered from gravels in the area known as 
Horseshoe Basin that surrounds the old town of Quijotoa (3 miles 
west of State Highway 86 and 3 miles south of Covered Wells), 
from two gulches (Homestake and Midas) in the vicinity of Covered 
Wells (Maish Vaya), and from an area located 3 miles south of 
Pozo Blanco (Stoa Vaya) and 1 mile west of the mountains. 
Production history: The Quijotoa placers have been worked on a 
small scale from 1774 to the present. The early production is un- 
known; since the 1860's many reports indicate that $3,00O-$7,000 
per year in placer gold was recovered by Papago Indians and 
Mexican miners. The gold was recovered from the unconsolidated 
surface gravels and from the underlying caliche-cemented gravel. 
The gravels are said to average more than 80 cents per yard. In 
1910 a Quinner pulverizing machine and a Stebbins separator table 
was used in Horseshoe Basin to recover gold from the gravels, but 
most of the mining was done by individuals who pulverized the 
gravels by hand before using drywashers or bateas to separate the 
gold. 

Source: Numerous deposits of vein gold are in the Quijotoa Mountains; 

erosion of these veins has concentrated the gold in various placers 

along the flanks of the mountains. 
Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Location; character of gravels; distribution of gold in 
gravels; placer-mining techniques; placer-mining operations dur- 
ing the period 1905-6 and in 1910. 

Blake, 1899: Location; production; general history of placer mining. 

Browne, 1868: Notes long activity at Quijotoa placers. 

Bryan, 1925: Locates Pozo Blanco and Horseshoe. 

Burchard, 1885: Placer discovery in 1884; location; extent; length 
and thickness of auriferous gravels; production. 

Elliott, 1884: History; early date of placer-mining activity; extent 
of placer ground; Quijotoa. 

Fickett, 1911: Placer-mining techniques; distribution of gold in 
gravels and caliche. 

Heikes and Yale, 1913: Location; placer-mining operations; char- 
acter of placer gravels; production from 1903 to 12. 

Hinton, 1878: Notes placer occurrence; size of gold. 

Mining Journal, 1939c: Reports average value of placer gravel at 
Mackey Brothers claims; depth of gravels. 

1940: Reports nuggets as large as half an ounce in weight. 

Randolph, 1903: Notes placer-mining activity. 

Stephens, 1884: History; early placer mining (1774-1849); placer- 
mining activity during the period 1883-84. 



PIMA COUNTY 



43 



Wilson, 1961: Location; history; placer-mining activity (1906, 1910, 
1932-33); distribution of placer gold at Pozo Blanco and Horse- 
shoe Basin; average value of placer gravels; source. 

42. AJO DISTRICT 

Location: Adjacent to the New Cornelia mine in the Little Ajo 

Mountains, T. 12 S., R. 6 W. 
Topographic map: Ajo 15-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic map: Gilluly, 1946, Geologic map and sections of the Ajo 

mining district, Pima County (pi. 20), scale 1:12,000. 
Access: From Yuma, 117 miles east on U.S. Interstate 8 to Gila Bend; 

from there 42 miles south on State Highway 85 to Ajo. 
Extent: A small placer deposit is found in gravels in Cornelia Arroyo 

(sees. 23 and 26, T. 12 S., R. 6 W.). 
Production history: 24 ounces of gold was recovered during the period 

1932-33 at a time when the New Cornelia copper mine was closed; 

apparently, no placer gold has been recovered since that time. 
Source: The gold is evidently derived from the oxidized part of the 

New Cornelia ore body, which contains about 0.0067 ounce of 

gold per unit of copper. 
Literature: 

Gilluly, 1946: Location; source; production. 

OTHER DISTRICTS 

43. EMPIRE DISTRICT 

The Empire district is in the Empire Mountains (T. 18 S., R. 17 E.), 
which extend northeastward from the Santa Rita Mountains; the lode 
deposits of the district are primarily base-metal replacement and con- 
tact deposits. In 1935, 2 ounces of placer gold was reportedly recovered, 
but the location and source of this placer is unknown. 
Literature: 

Wilson, 1951: Describes principal mines in the Empire district. 

44. OLD BALDY DISTRICT (MADERA CANYON PLACERS) 

Madera Canyon is on the northwest slope of the Santa Rita Moun- 
tains (T. 19 S., R. 14 E.). Reportedly there was considerable placer 
mining in the lower part of the Madera Canyon alluvial fan in the 
late 1880's, but I have found no record of any placer gold produced 
in this district. The only recent activity reported was for 1932-33, when 
the deposits were sampled. 
Literature: 

Schrader, 1915: Location, extent, depth of gravels; early placer- 
mining activity. 



44 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Wilson, 1961: Virtually quotes Schrader (1915); placer-mining ac- 
tivity during the period 1932-33. 

45. SILVER BELL DISTRICT 

No information has been found describing placer deposits in the 
Silver Bell district, Silver Bell Mountains (Tps. 11 and 12, S., R. 8 
E.) about 40 miles northwest of Tucson. 

PINAL COUNTY 

46. OLD HAT DISTRICT (CANADA DEL ORO PLACERS; SOUTHERN BELLE 

PLACERS) 

Location: Northwest and northeast flanks of the Santa Catalina Moun- 
tains, T. 10 S., Rs. 14-16 E. 
Topographic maps: Mammoth and Oracle 15-minute quadrangles. 
Geologic maps: 

Creasey, 1967, Geologic map and sections of the Mammoth quad- 
rangle, Pinal County, Arizona (pi. 1), scale 1:48,000. 

Wilson and Moore, 1959b, Geologic map of Pinal County, Arizona, 
scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Oracle, dirt roads lead southeast and southwest to the 
placer areas on both sides of the mountains. 

Extent: The Canada del Oro placer area is the large alluvial fan at 
the northwest end of the Santa Catalina Mountains north and west 
of Samaniego and Oracle Ridges (T. 10 S., Rs. 14 and 15 E., 
Oracle quadrangle). Gold is found in gravel beds that reportedly 
range in thickness from 6 feet at the creek side to 252 feet at the 
top of the alluvial fan. The gold-bearing gravel occurs over a wide 
strip along the creek and in adjacent hillsides and extends south 
into Pima County. 

The Southern Belle placer is in creek beds below the Southern 
Belle mine on the northeast flank of the Santa Catalina Mountains 
(unsurveyed sees. 19 and 20, T. 10 S., R. 16 E., Mammoth quad- 
rangle). The gold is said to be concentrated in a pay streak on top 
of red clay material derived from the decomposition of diorite 
(diabase of Creasey, 1967). 

Production history: The placers in Canada del Oro have been known 
and worked for many years. Some reports state that Spaniards may 
have worked the gravels in the early 1700's, but I have found no 
estimates of the gold recovered by these early miners. The deposits 
have been worked on a small scale throughout most of the 20th 
century; small amounts of gold were recovered in most years. Most 
of the gold occurred as well-rounded particles ranging in size from 
grains worth a few cents to one-fourth-ounce nuggets. During the 



PINAL COUNTY 



45 



early 1930's a nugget worth $25 (at $20.67 per oz) was recovered, 
and a 16-pound lump containing about 40-percent quartz was said to 
have been found in the late 1800's. 

The placers near the Southern Belle mine were known in 1884 
and may have been worked before that time. These deposits have 
no recorded production and were probably worked out in the early 
1900's. Reportedly, the gold recovered was coarse, as some large 
nuggets were said to have been taken out. 
Source: According to Wilson (1961, p. 61-62,) gold-bearing veins in 
the upper reaches of Canada del Oro, which heads on the north 
flank of Mount Lemmon, were the probable source of the placer 
gold in that area. I have found no detailed information about these 
veins, which were worked at the Copeland, Kerr, Matas, and other 
prospects. 

The gold in the Southern Belle placer is presumably derived from 
the gold-bearing Southern Belle ore deposit. 
Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Quotes Heikes and Yale (1913). 

Blake, 1899: Notes presence of placer gold; source at Southern Belle. 

Browne, 1868: Placer-mining activity at Canada del Oro. 

Burchard, 1885: Placer-mining activity at Southern Belle. 

Burgess, 1903: Locates Southern Belle placer; average gold content 
in 50-pound sample; describes lode mine. 

Creasey, 1967: Describes geology and ore deposits in vicinity of 
Southern Belle mine (p. 82-83). Does not describe placers. 

Heikes and Yale, 1913: Location; thickness of gravels; character and 
origin of placer gravels; gold values per cubic yard; size of nug- 
gets; production from 1903 to 1912; placer-mining operations. 

Hinton, 1878: Notes placer occurrence; profitable workings. 

Hodge, 1877: Notes history of mining activity. 

Wilson, 1961: History; placer-mining activity during the period 
1932-33; origin of gold. Quotes Heikes (1913). 

OTHER DISTRICTS 

47. CASA GRANDE DISTRICT 

The Casa Grande district includes the Silver Reef and Slate Moun- 
tains in southwestern Pinal County. Free gold has been found in veins 
at the Mammon mine, western Slate Mountains (T. 10 S., R. 4 E.), 
and probably occurs in other parts of the range. Ellis locates gold 
placers in the alluvial valley on the east side of the Slate Mountains 
(T. 10 S., R. 6 E.). No information has been found about the placer 
gold recovered from this district in 1922. 



46 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Literature: 

Ellis, 1962: Map locates placers in vicinity of Slate Mountains. 
Wilson, Cunningham, and Butler, 1934: Describes ores at Mammon 
mine. 

48. GOLDFIELD DISTRICT 

Small amounts of placer gold have been recovered from deposits 
in the northwestern part of the Superstition Mountains (T. 1 N., R. 
8 E.). The gold was probably derived from free gold in oxidized 
quartz veins in granite, which were mined at the Morman Stope of the 
Young mine. 
Literature: 

Wilson, Cunningham, and Butler, 1934: Describes ores in the district. 

49. MINERAL CREEK DISTRICT 

In 1888, placer gold valued at $400 was recovered from Mineral 
Creek (Ray district) on the west flank of the Dripping Spring Moun- 
tains (T. 3 S., R. 13 E.) in the eastern part of Pinal County. 
Literature: 

Trippel, 1889: Production. 

50. PIONEER (SUPERIOR) DISTRICT 

Placer gold was recovered from the southwestern part of the Pioneer 
district in the vicinity of Picket Post Mountain. The probable source 
of the gold was eroded material derived from oxidized veins in the 
area. 

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY 

51. ORO BLANCO DISTRICT 

Location: Oro Blanco Mountains north of the United States-Mexico 

boundary, T. 23 S., Rs. 10 and 11 E. 
Topographic maps: Ruby and Oro Blanco 15-minute quadrangles. 
Geologic map: Wilson, Moore, and O'Haire, 1960, Geologic map of 

Pima and Santa Cruz Counties, scale 1:375,000. 
Access: From Nogales, about 25 miles northwest on State Highway 

289 to Oro Blanco. Dirt roads and jeep trails lead south to placer 

areas. 

Extent: The Oro Blanco Mountains are named for the fact that the 
placer gold found in the area is so alloyed with silver that it is 
silvery white. Placer gold is said to occur in almost every ravine 
and gulch, on many hillsides, and on surfaces where the soil is reddish 
from decomposed pyrite. Alamo Gulch and its neighboring gulches 
(T. 23 S., R. 10 E., Oro Blanco quadrangle) reportedly contained 
the richest placers; gold recovered from Alamo Gulch was valued 



SANTA CRUZ COUNTY 



47 



at $16 per ounce (at $20.67 per oz). Placers found at the mouth 
of Warsaw Gulch on California Gulch (also called Oro Blanco 
Viejo Gulch; sec. 29, T. 23 S., R. 11 E., Ruby quadrangle) contained 
gold valued at $10 per ounce (at $20.67 per oz). Most of the gold 
ranged in size from flour to small nuggets. 

Production history: During the past century, most of the placer mining 
was done with crude implements and with an inadequate water 
supply. During the 20th century some large-scale placer mining 
has been attempted; most of these operations were unsuccessful, 
however, because of the fine size of the gold. 

Source: The placers were derived from the numerous gold-silver-bear- 
ing veins in the Oro Blanco Mountains. 

Literature: 

Bird, 1916: Notes placer-mining activity. 

Blake, 1899: Location; extent of placer ground; character of placer 

gravels; placer-mining techniques. 
Girand, 1933: Placer-mining techniques; activity in 1933. 
Koschmann and Bergendahl, 1968: Placer production from 1896 to 

1904. 

Randolph, 1903: Placer-mining activity in 1902. 

Wilson, 1961: Location; extent; areas of placer concentration; 
history; placer-mining activity during the period 1906-32; early 
production estimates. 

52. NOGALES DISTRICT 

Location: In the vicinity of Mount Benedict southwest of the Santa 
Cruz River, T. 23 S., R. 14 E. 

Topographic map: Nogales 15-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic map: Wilson, Moore, and O'Haire, 1960, Geologic map of 
Pima and Santa Cruz Counties, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Nogales, about 2 miles northeast on State Highway 
82 to dirt road leading northwest about 2 miles to mines on the 
south slope of Mount Benedict. 

Extent: Schrader (1915, p. 355), reported that placers occur in Guebabi 
Canyon, which drains the northwest flanks of the Patagonia Moun- 
tains and crosses an alluvial plain to the Santa Cruz River. 

Placers occur on the east side of Mount Benedict near the Santa 
Cruz River (Bird, 1916, p. 10). This area is about 1-3 miles south- 
east of the mouth of Guebabi Canyon. 

Production history: The recorded production of placer gold from the 
Nogales district is very small, and the exact location of the placers 
worked is unknown, although Schrader (1915) suggests that the 
placers in the Guebabi canyon were among the oldest and largest 
placer mines in the area. F. S. Simons (oral commun., 1971) reports 



48 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



that no evidence was seen to indicate the presence of placer gravels 

and that the occurrence of gold in the canyon is unlikely. 
Source: The placers found on the east side of Mount Benedict were 

probably derived from gold-bearing veins known to occur in this 

isolated mountain of Precambrian granite. 
Literature: 

Bird, 1916: Notes presence of placer gold on slopes of Mount 

Benedict near the Santa Cruz River. 
Mining Review, 1910b: Reports high concentration of placer gold 

in gravels surrounding Nogales; an exaggerated account. 
Schrader, 1915: Location of placers in Guebabi Canyon; extent of 

gravels; early placer-mining activity. 
Wilson, 1961: Quotes Schrader. 

53. PATAGONIA DISTRICT 

Location: East flank of the Patagonia Mountains, T. 23 S., R. 16 E. 

(unsurveyed). 
Topographic map: Lochiel 15-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic map: Wilson, Moore, and O'Haire, 1960, Geologic map of 
Pima and Santa Cruz Counties, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Nogales, about 5 miles northeast on State Highway 82 
to junction with light-duty road at the Santa Cruz River; from there, 
10 miles east across Patagonia Mountains to dirt roads that lead to 
placers in Mowry Wash. 

Extent: Small placers are found in gravels of Mowry Wash and some 
of its tributaries. Schrader (1915, p. 348) locates four areas where 
gold was recovered from the gravels: at the east edge of the Quajolote 
Flat in gravels about 5 feet thick (in Providencia Canyon, near 
the Four Metals mine); near the head of Mowry Wash in the gravels 
in a southside tributary (near the old Winifred mine); and in 
two northside tributaries southeast of Mowry. Placers were also found 
in Quajolote Wash downstream from the old Mowry smelter; this 
wash is not named on the topographic map. The gold recovered 
from the Patagonia placers is generally associated with black sand 
and in size is generally less than 0.1 inch diameter. One 2-ounce 
nugget and several smaller nuggets were found. 

Production history: The placers in the Patagonia district have a re- 
corded production of about 100 ounces, about equal to that of the 
Oro Blanco district, although they probably were not so important 
in the early history of the region. 

Source: The detrital gold was apparently freed by erosion of silver, 
lead, and copper ores that contain very minor amounts of gold. The 



SANTA CRUZ COUNTY 



49 



host rocks for the ore bodies in the drainage area of Mowry Wash 
are Precambrian quartz monzonite at the Four Metals mine and 
monzonite and Carboniferous limestone at the Mowry mine. 
Literature: 

Mining and Scientific Press, 1908: Reports placer-mining activity; 

production per man per month. 
Schrader, 1915: Location; placer-mining activity; average yield per 

day per man; production. 
Wilson, 1961: Quotes Schrader; adds information on placer mining 

in 1933; size of gold particles. 

54. TYNDALL-PALMETTO-HARSHAW DISTRICTS 

Location: Low hills on both sides of Sonoita Creek south of the Santa 
Rita Mountains, Tps. 21 and 22 S., Rs. 14 and 15 E. 

Topographic maps: Mount Wrightson and Nogales 15-minute quad- 
rangles. 

Geologic maps: 

Drewes, 1971a, Geologic map of the Mount Wrightson quadrangle, 

Santa Cruz and Pima Counties, Arizona, scale 1:48,000. 
Wilson, Moore, and O'Haire, 1960, Geologic map of Pima and Santa 

Cruz Counties, scale 1:375,000. 
Extent: Three minor placers are on the west flank of the Patagonia 
Mountains in the Tyndall, Palmetto, and Harshaw districts. The 
only information found relates to the location of the placers given 
by Schrader (1915, p. 220, 279) for the Tyndall and Harshaw 
districts, and by Wilson (1961, p. 84), for the Palmetto district. 

The placers in the Tyndall district are found in the gravels in the 
open basin at the head of the tributary to Ash Canyon in the 
SWi/4 of sec. 35 and on both sides of the township line between 
Tps. 21 and 22 S., R. 14 E. (Mount Wrightson quadrangle). 

The placers in the Harshaw district are in Quaternary gravels 
on a mesa southeast of the junction of Sonoita Creek and Alum 
Canyon in sees. 13 and 24, T. 22 S., R. 15 E. (Mount Wrightson 
quadrangle). 

The placers in the Palmetto district are in Three R Canyon 2i/ 2 
miles northwest of the Three R mine in sec. 27, T. 22 S., R. 15 E. 
(Nogales quadrangle); the placers were worked for 1 month in 
1927 and abandoned. 

Production history: The Tyndall and Palmetto deposits have had no 
recorded production during the 20th century, and are relatively 
unknown. A small production was made from the Palmetto district. 

Source: The detrital gold was probably eroded from small gold-bear- 
ing veins in the vicinity of the placers. 



50 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Literature: 

Schrader, 1915: Tyndall district— location. Harshaw district— location; 
accessory minerals; placer-mining activity. 

Wilson, 1961: Tyndall district— quotes Schrader. Harshaw district- 
quotes Schrader. Palmetto district— location; placer-mining activity 
in 1927. 

YAVAPAI COUNTY 

[The most productive placers in Arizona are in the high mountainous region of 
south-central Yavapai County. Most of the placers are concentrated on the slopes 
of the Bradshaw Mountains in the vicinity of many small lode deposits. Because 
of the large number of small mining districts that include parts of gold-bearing 
streams. I have grouped the placers on the basis of drainage areas rather than 
formal mining districts] 

55. LYNX CREEK DRAINAGE AREA 

Location: North flank of the Bradshaw Mountains and the south side 
of Lonesome Valley, Tps., 13 and 14 N., R. 1 W.; T. 14 N., 
R. 1 E. 

Topographic maps: Prescott and Mount Union 15-minute quadrangles. 
Geologic maps: 

Anderson and Blacet, 1972b, Geologic map of the Mount Union 

quadrangle, Yavapai County, Arizona, scale 1:62,500. 
Krieger, 1965, Geologic map and sections of the Prescott quad- 
rangle, Arizona, (pi. 1), scale 1:48,000. 
Access: From Prescott, State Highway 69 east parallels the lower course 
of Lynx Creek, and light-duty roads lead south from State Highway 
69 at Prescott to many points along the upper reaches of Lynx 
Creek. 

Extent: Placers occur along the entire length of Lynx Creek from near 
the headwaters at Walker, 7 miles southeast of Prescott, downstream 
to the junction of Lynx Creek with the Aqua Fria River, 13 miles 
east of Prescott. 

The placers along the upper reaches of Lynx Creek (in the 
Walker district) occur in the main creek and along its tributaries 
from near Walker (sec. 34, T. 13 N., R. 1 W., Mount Union 
quadrangle) downstream for a distance of about 8 miles to the 
lower dam area (sec. 22, T. 14 N., R. 1 W., Prescott quadrangle). 
This part of Lynx Creek flows across Precambrian rock, and the 
gold occurs in thin gravels on narrow benches or bars. 

The placers in lower Lynx Creek occur in the east-trending part 
of the creek from the area around the lower dam, east to the junc- 
tion with the Aqua Fria River (sec. 34, T. 14 N., R 1 E., just east 
of the Prescott quadrangle). Gold occurs in the recent alluvium 



YAVAPAI COUNTY 



51 



at the bottom of the steep-walled gulch cut into Tertiary con- 
glomerate. The placer gravels attain a minimum width of more than 
one-eighth of a mile and have a thickness of 8-24 feet; a rich pay 
streak 4 feet thick was found 2 feet above the conglomerate bedrock. 

An area called the Nugget Patch, south of the lower dam on 
Lynx Creek (sec. 3, T. 13 N., R. 1 W., Prescott quadrangle), is 
said to contain gold in black sands that were probably derived 
from quartz veins in the underlying Precambrian gabbro (Krieger, 
1965, p. 114). 

Production history: Lynx Creek is the most productive gold-bearing 
stream in Arizona, although other districts (La Paz, Yuma County; 
Weaver, Yavapai County) have yielded more gold from alluvial 
fans, flats, and arroyos. The Lynx Creek placers were discovered 
in May 1863 by Sam Miller and four other prospectors of the group 
led by Captain Joe Walker. Sam Miller reportedly panned $4.80 
in gold from a gravel bank along Lynx Creek; on May 10, 1863, 
the party organized the first mining district in Yavapai County, which 
they called the "Pioneer District." The Walker quartz mining 
district was formed November 24, 1863. Production from the Lynx 
Creek placers before 1900 is generally estimated at about $1 million, 
although some writers estimate $2 million. 

During the 20th century the placers in the lower section of Lynx 
Creek have been the most actively mined. Large-scale placer mining 
was done by dredges operating along 5 miles of lower Lynx Creek 
from the lower dam in sec. 22, T. 14 N., R. 1 W., to the vicinity 
of Fain's Ranch in sec. 28, T. 14 N., R. 1 E. (Prescott quadrangle). 
The Calari Dredging Co. worked placer ground in 1933 below the 
lower dam that averaged 32 cents per cubic yard. In late 1939 the 
Rock Castle Placer Mines Co. used a dryland dredge to work the 
bench gravels in this area. From 1934 to 1940 (in particular the 
years 1938-39) the Lynx Creek Placer Mining Co. worked the 
gravels on the Fitzmaurice property, which extends from sees. 22-24, 
T. 14 N., R. 1 W., through sec. 19, T. 14 N., R. 1 E.; this dredge 
was the largest single producer in Arizona. 

Most of the placer mining in the area of upper Lynx Creek was 
small-scale rocking and sluicing, but a few larger scale placer opera- 
tions were attempted, especially in that part of upper Lynx Creek 
just downstream from the old Highway Bridge (NW 14 sec. 33, T. 14 
N., R. 1 W.). During the period 1940-41 gravels were worked in the 
area called Bigelow Flat to about half a mile below the bridge, a 
distance of about 3 miles. 

Source: The placer gold in Lynx Creek was derived from numerous 
widely scattered small gold-quartz veins in adjacent parts of the 



52 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Bradshaw Mountains. Mineralization in the Bradshaw Mountains 
is both Precambrian and Laramide in age, and placers have been de- 
rived from veins of both ages. In the Walker area, the gold-quartz 
veins are associated with a small stock of granodiorite that recent work 
has shown to be of Laramide age (64 m.y.; Anderson, 1968, p. 1169). 
Most of the gold in Lynx Creek is thought to have been derived from 
the gold veins in the Walker area. The gold found along the creek 
varies from coarse nuggets to 4 ounces in the upper reaches of the 
creek to fine gold along the lower reaches of Lynx Creek. The 
gold-silver ratio in the nuggets increases downstream. 
Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Location; production; placer-mining operations during 

the periods 1907-9 and 1918-19. 
Blake, 1899: Location; placer-mining operations; problems; gold 

values per cubic yard. 
Burchard, 1882: Production estimate (1863-81). 

1884: Brief history of early placer mining; locates placer ground 

near lode mines on upper Lynx Creek. 

1885: Production estimates and production for 1884. 

De Wolf, 1916: Reports four hydraulic giants installed at Lynx 

Creek. 

Gardner and Johnson, 1935: Depth of gravel; placer-mining opera- 
tions on upper Lynx Creek. 

Gardner and Allsman, 1938: Lists— placer-mining techniques; depth 
and characteristics of gravel mined; depth of bedrock mined; 
percent of gold recovery. 

Koschmann and Bergendahl, 1968: History; placer-mining opera- 
tions; production. 

Krieger, 1965: History; location of placer-mining operations; bedrock 
geology. 

Lindgren, 1926: History; production; extent of placers, character 

and value of gold; source. 
Raymond, 1872: Walker district— extent of placers; placer-mining 

problems on upper Lynx Creek. 
Wilson, 1961: Location; history; production; dredging operations to 

1949. Small-scale operations in 1933; geology of gold in gravels. 
Wood, 1929: History of placer discovery. 

56. HASSAYAMPA RIVER DRAINAGE AREA 

Location: West flank of the Bradshaw Mountains, Tps. 8-13 N., Rs. 
2-5 W. 

Topographic maps: Congress 30-minute quadrangle; Wagoner NE 
15-minute quadrangle (covers only NE 14 of quadrangle); Kirkland 



YAVAPAI COUNTY 



53 



E. 15-minute quadrangle (covers only E 14 of quadrangle); Mount 
Union 15-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic maps: 

Arizona Bureau of Mines, 1958, Geologic map of Yavapai County, 
scale 1:375,000. 

Anderson and Blacet, 1972b, Geologic map of the Mount Union 
quadrangle, scale 1:62,500. 
Access: U.S. Highway 89 leads south to Congress from Prescott west 
of the placer areas along Hassayampa Creek. Dirt roads lead east 
from U.S. Highway 89 to the different placer areas along the 
Hassayampa. 

Extent: Placers are found along most of the Hassayampa River and 
in many tributaries from Groom Creek near the headwaters, down- 
stream to Blue Tank Wash, a tributary near Wickenburg. 

Upper Hassayampa River (Hassayampa district): In the head- 
waters of the Hassayampa River, placers are found along Groom 
Creek, the Hassayampa River, and small side gulches (T. 13 N., R. 2 
W., Mount Union quadrangle). I have found no description of the 
gold-bearing gravels in Groom Creek and nearby parts of the 
Hassayampa River. 

Central Hassayampa River (Wagoner, Walnut Grove, and Tiger 
districts): The central part of the Hassayampa drainage area, near 
Walnut Grove and Wagoner, includes the Hassayampa River, tribu- 
taries on the west side (Placerita and French Gulches), tributaries on 
the east side (Blind Indian, Milk, Minnehaha, Cherry and Oak 
Creeks). The gravels in the river near Walnut Grove contain 
many boulders but no clay; the gold is described as flake gold. The 
Hassayampa River was most actively worked between 1885 and 1890; 
during that time a dam was built (near the junction of Cherry 
Creek with the Hassayampa— sec. 23, T. 10 N., R. 3 W., Wagoner 
quadrangle) to permit hydraulic mining in Rich Hill (10 miles 
west) and large-scale operations on the Hassayampa downstream from 
Wagoner. The dam failed in 1890, killing 150 people and flooding 
the downstream section of the Hassayampa. 

Gravels were mined along the upper parts and side gulches of 
Placerita Gulch (approximately sec. 14, T. 11 N., R. 4 W., Congress 
quadrangle), near the junction of Placerita and French Gulches 
(sees. 7 and 18, T. 11 N., R. 3 W., Kirkland quadrangle), and on 
French Gulch, 1 mile southeast of Zonia (sec. 17 or 18, T. 11 N., 
R. 3 W.). Much of the gold in these gulches is fairly coarse and 
many 14- and i/>-ounce nuggets were recovered. 

Placers have also been found in Blind Indian and Milk Creeks 
on the east side of the Hassayampa (Tps. 10 and 11 N., Rs. 2 and 3 



54 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



W.), but these were not worked so extensively as the placers in 
Placerita and French Gulches. Placer gold was reportedly found on 
Slate and Milk Creeks in beds of volcanic agglomerate that were 
hydraulicked before 1905. 

South of Blind Indian and Milk Creeks, small placers were 
worked in Minnehaha, Cherry, and Oak Creeks. Placers were found 
near the headwaters of Minnehaha Creek in Minehaha Flat (un- 
surveyed sees. 19, 30, 31, T. 10 N., R. 1 W., Crown King quad- 
rangle) and on Oak Creek, 1 mile below Fentons Ranch (sec. 3 
or 9, T. 9 N., R. 2 W., Crown King quadrangle). 

Lower Hassayampa River (Black Rock and Blue Tanks districts): 
Small placers are found in the Black Rock region in T. 8 N., 
R. 3 W. (Congress quadrangle) and on the Hassayampa River near 
the mouth of Blue Tank Wash in T. 7 N., R. 5 W., near the 
Maricopa County-Yavapai County boundary. 
Production history: Upper Hassayampa River (Hassayampa district): 
The placers in Groom Creek were discovered in the 1860's and 
actively worked in the 1880's. Sparks (1917) estimated $3 million 
production in placer gold from Groom Creek, but this estimate is 
probably grossly high. During the 1930's this northern region was 
placered on a small scale by many individuals, and from 1939 to 
1942, a dragline dredge on the Hobbs property (unlocated) on the 
Hassayampa River recovered several hundred ounces of placer gold. 

Central Hassayampa River (Wagoner, Walnut Grove, and Tiger 
districts): Most placer mining in the central region was done by 
individuals using drywash machines. 

Lower Hassayampa River (Black Rock and Blue Tanks dis- 
tricts): Minor amounts of placer gold were recovered intermittently 
from this region and from the Hassayampa River in Maricopa 
County. 

Source: The tributaries of the Hassayampa River drain a wide area 
of mineralized terrain. The ore deposits that contributed the gold 
found along the Hassayampa and its tributaries are of both Pre- 
cambrian and Tertiary age, and it is difficult to demonstrate which 
vein or vein systems provided the source of the placer gold. Lindgren 
(1926) summarizes the physical characteristics and probable age 
of many of the veins in the area. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Location; names placer-bearing tributary creeks. 
Blake, 1899: Notes presence of placer gold. 

Browne, 1868: Describes discovery of placers on the Hassayampa 
River. 



YAVAPAI COUNTY 



55 



Burchard, 1882: General history of placer mining along the Has- 
sayampa. 

1883: History and placer-mining activity at Placeritas. 

Church, 1887: Reports progress on Walnut Grove Dam. 

De Wolf, 1916: Reports plans to rebuild Walnut Grove Dam. 

Engineering and Mining Journal, 1933c: Results of sampling placer 

ground at Minnehaha placers. 

1890: Reports failure of Walnut Grove Dam. 

Girand, 1932: Describes dry wash machine used at Walnut Grove; 

characteristics of gravels; size of gold recovered. 
Jagger and Palache, 1905: Reports gold in Blind Indian and Milk 

Creek. 

Koschmann and Bergendahl, 1968: Placer-gold production. 

Lindgren, 1926: Notes placers in Minnehaha Flat; locates placers 
on upper Hassayampa. 

Raymond, 1872: Location; extent; placer-mining techniques. 

Sparks, 1917: Production estimates for Groom Creek. 

U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1926-31: Names claims and creeks where 
placer mining is active. 

1934: Names claims and creeks where placer mining was active. 

Wilson, 1961: Hassayampa placers— location; production history; 
placer-mining activity during the period 1932-33; source. Groom 
Creek— location; production estimates; source. Placerita placers- 
early history; placer-mining activity during the period 1932-33; 
size of nuggets. 

57. BIG BUG CREEK DRAINAGE AREA 

Location: East flank of the Bradshaw Mountains, Tps. 12 and 13 

N., R. 1 W.; Tps. 12 and 13 N., Rs. 1 and 2 E. 
Topographic maps: Mount Union and Mayer 15-minute quadrangles. 
Geologic maps: 

Anderson and Blacet, 1972a, Geologic map of the Mayer quadrangle, 

Yavapai County, Arizona, scale 1:62,500. 
1972b, Geologic map of the Mount Union quadrangle, Yavapai 

County, Arizona, scale 1:62,500. 
Access: State Highway 69 leads east and south from Prescott to 
Humboldt, Poland Junction, and Mayer. Placers are found adjacent 
to the highway near Mayer and are easily accessible by dirt roads 
from the highway. 

Extent: Placers are found in stream gravels and gravel-covered mesas 
in a roughly triangular area that extends for about 20 miles east 
and northeast from the head of Big Bug Creek. Most placer-mining 
activity was concentrated in the part of Big Bug Creek, tributary 
gulches and gravel benches in the area bounded by McCabe, Hum- 



56 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



boldt, and Mayer (Tps. 12 and 13 N., R. 1 E., Mayer and Mount 
Union quadrangles). Apparently, there was little or no mining in the 
part of Big Bug Creek downstream from Mayer. Small placers 
were worked in the upper reaches of Big Bug Creek below the 
Mesa mine, about 2 miles south-southeast of Walker, on the south 
side of the creek (approximately sec. 9, T. 12 N., R 1 W., unsurveyed, 
Mount Union quadrangle); in Eugene Gulch, a major tributary to 
Big Bug Creek (south edge of T. 13 N., R. 1 W., Mount Union 
quadrangle), and in Chaparral Gulch and other small gulches near 
McCabe (Wi/ 2 of T. 13 N., R. 1 E., Mount Union quadrangle). 

Production history: The placers in the drainage area of Big Bug Creek 
were discovered during the 1860's, but the greatest activity in placer 
mining was during the 1880's (Wilson, 1961, p. 48). Wilson states 
that no estimate of early production is available, but recorded pro- 
duction for the 20th century (second only to Lynx Creek in Yavapai 
County) indicates early production probably was large. 

In the eastern part of the area, north and northwest of Mayer, 
many small-scale and some large-scale placer operations have been 
active during the 20th century. The Shank and Savoy property (or 
the Savoy property) was active for many years; this placer is in a 
side gulch on the west side of Big Bug Creek and extends about 
3 miles northwest of Mayer (probably Grapevine Gulch, sec. 8, T. 
12 N., R. 1 E., Mount Union quadrangle). The gold-bearing 
gravels overlying cemented gravels were bouldery to sandy, with little 
clay. The gold here was irregularly distributed, flat to round particles 
that were as much as 50 cents in value. This placer was worked by 
a number of companies and probably produced most of the placer 
gold reported from the district during the 1930's and 1940's. 

Other placer-mining activity was concentrated in the area sur- 
rounding Mayer (especially sec. 22, T. 12 N., R. 1 E., Mayer 
quadrangle) where the placers are found in a wide gravel-covered 
area between outcrops of metamorphosed Precambrian volcanic 
rocks. The area was worked intensively for many years and during 
the 1932-33 season was reworked by individuals who mined the 
gravels by tunneling and packing the pay dirt to sluices, rockers, 
or small concentrating machines. 

Source: The placers in the Big Bug district originated by erosion of 
many small, and some large, gold-bearing veins on the east flank 
of the Bradshaw Mountains. Some veins, such as the Mesa mine in 
the upper part of Big Bug Creek, and several veins in the vicinity 
of McCabe, are considered to be Precambrian in age; other veins, 
in the vicinity of Poland and Providence, are considered to be later, 
probably Laramide (Lindgren, 1926, p. 127). 



YAVAPAI COUNTY 



57 



Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Placer operations during the period 1900-1901; reason 
for failure. 

Arizona Mining Journal, 1919: Placer-mining activity in Eugenia 

(Eugene) Gulch. 
Koschmann and Bergendahl, 1968: Placer gold production. 
Lindgren, 1926: Locates small placers on upper Big Bug Creek. 
Randolph, 1903: Notes presence of placer gold. 

Wilson, 1961: Location; extent and character of gold-bearing gravel; 
placer-mining operations. 

58. TURKEY CREEK DRAINAGE AREA 

Location: East flank of the Bradshaw Mountains, T. 11 N., R. 1 E. 
Topographic maps: Mount Union and Mayer 15-minute quadrangles. 
Geologic maps: 

Anderson and Blacet, 1972a, Geologic map of the Mayer quad- 
rangle, Yavapai County, Arizona, scale 1:62:500. 

1972b, Geologic map of the Mount Union quadrangle, Yavapai 

County, Arizona, scale 1:62,500. 
Access: About 2 miles south of Mayer, a light-duty road leads south 

from State Highway 69 about 8 miles to the Turkey Creek area; 

about 11 miles south of Mayer, the road to Cleator leads west 

about 3 miles from State Highway 69 and a dirt road leads north to 

Turkey Creek area. 
Extent: Small placer deposits near Turkey Creek Station (once located 

I mile north of Cleator, sec. 35, T. 11 N., R. 1 E., unsurveyed, 
Mayer quadrangle) were drywashed for many years; placers are 
said to occur in the vicinity of Pine Flat, along the upper part of 
Turkey Creek near the Cunningham mine (approximately sec. 5, T. 

II N., R. 1 W., unsurveyed, Mount Union quadrangle). Two small 
placers are located on Turkey Creek, midway between the two 
placers mentioned above, which are about 1.6 and 2.9 miles up- 
stream from Turkey Creek Station (unsurveyed area, SE14 Mount 
Union quadrangle). Placers were also worked in terrace gravels along 
Turkey Creek downstream from the Golden Turkey mine (approxi- 
mately sec. 12, T. 10 N., R. 1 E., unsurveyed). 

Production history: The placers in Turkey Creek were worked in- 
termittently between 1908 and 1941, and small amounts of gold 
recovered. The placer gold credited to the Peck district by the U.S. 
Bureau of Mines probably comes from this area. 

Source: The placers in the Turkey Creek drainage probably were 
derived from gold veins in close proximity to the various small placers. 
Lindgren (1926, p. 156) states that Precambrian gold veins at Turkey 



58 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Creek Station are the source of the gold in the shallow placers on 
the flat below the veins. 
Literature: 

Blacet, 1968: Map locates placers on Turkey Creek. 
Guiteras, 1936: Placer-mining operations in 1936. 
Lindgren, 1926: Locates placers on Turkey Creek. 

59. BLACK CANYON DRAINAGE AREA 

Location: East flank of the Bradshaw Mountains, Tps. 9i/ 2 to 10 N., 
Rs. 1 and 2 E. 

Topographic maps: Mayer and Bumble Bee 15-minute quadrangles. 
Geologic maps: 

Anderson and Blacet, 1972a, Geologic map of the Mayer quadrangle, 

Yavapai County, Arizona, scale 1:62,500. 
Arizona Bureau of Mines, 1958, Geologic map of Yavapai County, 

scale 1:375,000. 

Access: State Highway 69 parallels Black Canyon between Bumble Bee 
and Arrastre Creek. 

Extent: Placers occur along the Black Canyon segment of Turkey 
Creek between Arrastre Creek and Poland Creek and have been 
worked upstream to the vicinity of Cleator. Placers were also mined 
in American and Mexican Gulches where Bumble Bee Creek enters 
Black Canyon. 

Placers were worked in Black Canyon below Howard's Copper 
mine (sec. 31, T. 10 N., R. 2 E., Bumble Bee quadrangle), where 
before 1922, one man reportedly produced about $20,000 in gold, 
probably at a spot about 1 mile downstream from the mine. Gold 
was also recovered from a gravel bar in Black Canyon about 3 miles 
south of Bumble Bee (probably sec. 32, T. 9i/ 2 N., R. 2 E., Bumble 
Bee quadrangle). 

Production history: The placers in the Black Canyon area have been 
worked intermittently since the latter part of the 1800's. The amount 
of gold recovered from the Black Canyon placers was not large 
compared with other placers in Yavapai County but was appreciably 
more than that recovered along the upper part of Turkey Creek. 

Source: The placers in the Black Canyon drainage were derived from 
gold veins that are apparently of both Precambrian and Late 
Cretaceous to early Tertiary (Laramide) age. Precambrian gold 
veins occur in the vicinity of Bumble Bee (on Bland Hill and at 
the Gillespie mine), and "Laramide" veins occur throughout the 
district, in particular, at the Thunderbolt mine in Black Canyon. 

Literature: 

Browne, 1868: Reports platinum in placers. 
Burchard, 1882: Reports placer occurrence. 



YAVAPAI COUNTY 



59 



Lindgren, 1926: Locates placers. 

Wilson, 1961: Location; extent of placer-mining activity during the 
period 1932-33. 

60. HUMBUG CREEK DRAINAGE AREA 

Location: South flank of the Bradshaw Mountains, Tps. 7-10 N., R. 

1 E.; Rs. 1 and 2 W. 
Topographic maps: Bradshaw Mountains 30-minute quadrangle; Pres- 

cott 2-degree sheet, Army Map Service; Crown King 15-minute 

quadrangle (covers only Ni/ 2 of quadrangle); Governors Peak 7i/£-min- 

ute quadrangle. 
Geologic maps: 

Arizona Bureau of Mines, 1958, Geologic map of Yavapai County, 
scale 1:375,000. 

Lindgren, 1926, Geologic map of the Bradshaw Mountains quad- 
rangle, Arizona (pi. 2), scale 1:125,000. 

Access: Light-duty roads lead northwest to Humbug Creek from State 
Highway 69 north of Lake Pleasant. 

Extent: Placers are found in many of the creeks that drain the south 
flank of the Bradshaw Mountains. Humbug, French, and Cow 
Creeks (Tps. 7-9 N., R. 1 W., R. 1 E.) reportedly contain placer 
gold throughout 20 miles of the drainage area. Buckhorn Gulch, 
Castle Creek, and small tributaries have been placered along the 
upper reaches in the vicinity of Copperpolis (T. 8 N., R. 2 W.). 

Production history: The production from the placers found in the 
Humbug Creek drainage area is generally listed by the U.S. Bureau 
of Mines under Humbug, Tip Top, Tiger, Silver Mountain, Castle 
Creek, and White Picacho districts. Most of the placer production 
has been small and intermittent. During the 1800's, placers in 
Rockwall, Carpenter, and Swilling Gulches, tributaries to Humbug 
Creek (T. 8 N., R. 1 W.-R. 1 E., Bradshaw Mountains quadrangle) 
were reportedly very productive but were exhausted early in the 
1900 s. During the 1890's, the Humbug Hydraulic Mining Works 
planned large-scale placer mining on lower Humbug Creek and 
constructed a dam in sec. 6, T. 7 N., R 1 E., (Governors Peak quad- 
rangle). This enterprise met with failure because the size of the gold 
was too small for the recovery methods used. The Star Placer on 
Humbug Creek (sec. 13, T. 8 N., R. 1 W.) and the Horseshoe placer 
(unlocated) on French Creek were worked after 1900. 

Small amounts of placer gold were recovered from Buckhorn 
Gulch, Castle Creek, American Gulch, and Todos Santos Creek 
(unlocated, White Picacho district) . The John D. placer, on Castle 
Creek (sec. 9, T. 8 N., R 2 W.), has been worked in the 20th 
century. Plans were made to dredge parts of Buckhorn Gulch, a 



60 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



tributary to Castle Creek, but apparently the operation did not 
materialize. 

Source: Gold placers along the upper reaches of Humbug Creek and 
especially in Carpenter, Swilling, and Rockwall gulches, were prob- 
ably derived from gold veins that intersect and offset rhyolite 
porphyry dikes (described by Lindgren, 1926, p. 179); association 
with these dikes is considered indicative of a "Laramide" age for gold 
mineralization in the Bradshaw Mountains. 

Gold placers along Castle Creek and tributaries were derived from 
Precambrian ore deposits that predominate in that area. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Placer operations in the 1890's; reasons for failure. 

Burchard, 1885: Reports placer mining on Coso Creek and trib- 
utaries (unlocated). 

De Wolf, 1916: Reports activity at Humbug Creek. 

Lindgren, 1926: Notes production from tributaries to Humbug Creek. 

Wilson, 1961: Extent and thickness of gold-bearing gravels; distri- 
bution of gold in gravels; placer-mining activity during the period 
1932-33. 

61. WEAVER (RICH HILL) DISTRICT 

Location: South flank of the Weaver Mountains. Tps. 9 and 10 N., 
Rs. 4 and 5 W. 

Topographic maps: Congress 30-minute quadrangle; Prescott 2-degree 
sheet, Army Map Service. 

Geologic map: Arizona Bureau of Mines, 1958, Geologic map of 
Yavapai County, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Prescott, 38 miles southwest on U.S. Highway 89 to light- 
duty road leading 8 miles east to Rich Hill. Dirt roads lead to 
placer ground. 

Extent: The Weaver placer area covers about 40 square miles on the 
south flank of the Weaver Mountains. The most important placer 
area in production and placer-mining activity is the area at the top 
of Rich Hill, parts of the sides of the hill, and gravels along Weaver 
and Antelope Creeks. This district is just north of Octave and east 
of Stanton (at the intersection of T. 10 N., R. 5 W.; Tps. 9 and 10 
N., R. 4 W.). At the top of Rich Hill, gold was found under 
boulders and in crevices in the granite bedrock, where it was 
quickly gathered by prospectors during the early years after the 
discovery of the placers. Below Rich Hill, in Antelope and Weaver 
Creeks, the gold was found in reconcentrated stream gravels, a few 
feet thick to more than 50 feet thick, that contained numerous 
large holders. 

Other placers are found west of this area, in the vicinity of the 



YAVAPAI COUNTY 



61 



Planet and Saturn mines (sec. 21, T. 10 N., R. 5 W.). This area 
probably produced the placer gold attributed to the Martinez dis- 
trict. 

Production history: The Rich Hill placers were discovered by a party 
of prospectors led by Captain Pauline Weaver in 1863 or 1864 (one 
account reports 1862 as the year of discovery) about the same time 
as the discovery of the Lynx Creek placers. According to many 
reports, a Mexican in the party found loose gold on the top of 
Rich Hill while looking for a stray animal. Immense excitement and 
intense mining activity followed the discovery. Within 3 months, 
$108,000 in gold ranging in size from a pinhead to large nuggets 
worth hundreds of dollars was recovered, and within 5 years, 
$500,000 in placer gold was recovered. By 1883, about $1 million 
in placer gold was recovered. The placers have been worked ex- 
tensively since the discovery, but because of the nature of the 
gravels, few large-scale operations have been attempted. Most of the 
mining has been done by drywashers, pans, rockers, and sluices, 
although some miners used power shovels and dry-separation plants. 

Source: There has been no detailed geologic study of the Weaver 
Mountains, therefore details of the nature of gold-bearing veins 
are not known. The mountains are composed principally of 
Precambrian granites and schists that contain numerous gold-bear- 
ing veins considered to be of Laramide age. Some of these veins 
in the vicinity of the placers have been mined for their gold content, 
and it is probable that the placers were probably derived from 
these and other similar veins in the vicinity. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Location; history; size of gold nuggets; production; 

distribution of different size particles of gold in different types of 

placer gravels. 
Blake, 1899: Location; size of nuggets; production. 
Blandy, 1897: Production estimates. 

Burchard, 1882: History; production estimates (1863-81). 
1885: History; early placer-mining activity. 

Esenwein, 1958: Describes new placer discovery; accessory minerals 
in placer. 

Gardner and Johnson, 1935: Placer-mining operations at Octave in 
1931. 

Hamilton, 1884: Production estimates; history. 

Heikes and Yale, 1913: Area and thickness of placer gravels; size 
of gold nugget; distribution of gold in gravels; production from 
1905 to 1912. 



62 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Heineman, 1931: Physical characteristics of nugget from Red Bank 
placer. 

Hodge, 1877: Production from Rich Hill during the first 3 months 

after discovery. 
Koschmann and Bergendahl, 1968: History; production. 
Mining Journal, 1938c: Details of placer-mining apparatus at 

Thunderbird property. 

1938e: Describes gravels at Thunderbird placer. 

Sawyer, 1932: Detailed description of sampling techniques; includes 

description of placer gravels. 
Watson, 1918: Discusses general history of placer mining at Rich 

Hill. 

Wilson, 1961: Describes placers in Yavapai County (p. 38-57). Loca- 
tion; extent; character of gold; distribution of gold-bearing gravels; 
placer-mining history and activity. 

62. MODEL AND KIRKLAND PLACERS 

Location: East flank of the Weaver Mountains in Peeples Valley, 
Tps. 11 and 12 N., Rs. 4 and 5 W. 

Topographic maps: Congress 30-minute quadrangle; Prescott 2-degree 
sheet, Army Map Service. 

Geologic map: Arizona Bureau of Mines, 1958, Geologic map of Yavapai 
County, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Prescott, 26 miles southwest on U.S. Highway 89 to 
Peeples Valley. Dirt roads lead from the highway east to Kirkland 
Creek and west to Model. 

Extent: Small placers are found on the west side of Peeples Valley 
in the vicinity of Model Creek and on the east side of Peeples Valley 
in Kirkland Creek. The placers in Model Creek and other gulches 
occur in small local basins or channels for about three-quarters of a 
mile on each side of Model Creek on the pediment area between 
the Weaver Mountains and Peeples Valley. This area cannot be 
accurately located because there are no large-scale maps, but it is 
probably near the Model mine in T. 11 N., R. 5 W. (Congress 
quadrangle). The Columbia placer is near the old Monitor mine in 
sec. 21, T. UN., R. 5 W. 

The location of the placers in Kirkland Creek is not certain, 
because U.S. Bureau of Mines records indicate only that the placers 
are on Kirkland Creek near Kirkland (T. 12 N., R. 4 W.). The 
headwaters of Kirkland Creek drain the northwest flank of the 
Weaver Mountains, opposite the Placeritas and French Creek 
placers, and the Kirkland placers probably are between the moun- 
tain slope and Kirkland. 



YAVAPAI COUNTY 



63 



Production history: Very little is known about the production of the 
placers in Model Creek; the area was active in 1933, but production 
for that year was included with production from the Weaver district 
by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. 

The placers in Kirkland Creek were worked on a small scale 
for a few years during the period 1934-57. 

Source: Unknown. Presumably, the gold was derived from small gold- 
bearing veins in the immediate vicinity of the placers, but, because 
the area has not been studied in detail, no information is known 
about the occurrence of the gold-bearing veins. 

Literature: 

Wilson, 1961: Model placers: location; extent and character of 
gold-bearing gravels; size of gold particles; placer-mining activ- 
ity during the period 1932-33. 

63. COPPER BASIN DISTRICT 

Location: Northeast and southwest flanks of the Sierra Prieta, Tps. 
13 and 14 N., Rs. 3 and 4 W. 

Topographic maps: Kirkland 15-minute quadrangle (covers only Ei/ 2 
of quadrangle); Iron Springs 15-minute quadrangle; Congress 30- 
minute quadrangle; Prescott 2-degree sheet, Army Map Service. 

Geologic maps: 

Krieger, 1967, Reconnaissance geologic map of the Iron Springs 
quadrangle, Yavapai County. Arizona, scale 1:62,500. 

Arizona Bureau of Mines, 1958, Geologic map of Yavapai County, 
scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Prescott, about 12 miles southwest on light-duty road 
paralleling Aspen Creek to Copper Basin; a light-duty road leads 
north across the crest of the Sierra Prieta to Miller Creek and 
Thumb Butte. 

Extent: Placers in the Copper Basin district are found in gulches 
that dissect the pediment slope on the southwest flank of the Sierra 
Prieta and in the gravel- floored plain between this pediment and 
Skull Valley. A small amount of placer gold was recovered between 
1933 and 1940 near Thumb Butte on the northeast slope of the 
mountains. 

In the immediate vicinity of Copper Basin (sees. 20 and 21, T. 
13 N., R. 3 W., Kirkland quadrangle) placers have been mined 
from terrace gravels and stream gravels in and near Copper Basin 
Wash and tributary gulches; tht terrace gravels contain oxidized 
copper deposits and some gold placers. These deposits contain gold 
fragments that are wiry to angular and noticeably coarser than the 



64 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



placers away from the mountains. Oxidized copper minerals are 
common in placers in the upper part of the Copper Basin Wash. 

Other placers near the mountains include deposits in Mexican 
Gulch, Copper Creek, and Spruce Canyon. Mexican Gulch is not 
located on the topographic maps, but Wilson (1961, p. 47) states 
that it is 2y 2 miles from Skull Valley and probably near the low 
hills at the east edge of T. 14 N., R. 4 W. The deposit in Mexican 
Gulch had an over burden of 10-15 feet of soil and sand on top 
of pay gravel 2 feet thick that contained appreciable amounts of clay. 
The gold recovered from this gulch was commonly the size of 
mustard seed to $3 nuggets, but some $15 nuggets were found 
(valued at $20.67 per oz) . Spruce Canyon is on the northwest slope 
of the Sierra Prieta, about 5 miles northeast of Skull Valley (T. 14 
N., R. 4 W., Iron Springs quadrangle); results of sampling in 1933 
indicated values of 56 cents to $2.12 per yard. Copper Creek, a 
tributary to the Hassayampa River, is southeast of Copper Basin 
(Tps. 12i/ 2 and 13 N., R. 3 W., Kirkland quadrangle), but the 
exact location of the placers is unknown. 

Apparently, the richest placers are on the gravel-floored plain west 
and south of Copper Basin (T. 13 N., R. 4 W.); most of this area 
is shown only on the Congress 30-minute quadrangle, which does 
not show the details necessary for accurate location of the placers. 
The gravels in this area are characterized by small boulders and 
more clay than the gravels near the mountains. The gold in these 
gravels occurs as particles worth less than 25 cents; larger nuggets 
are rare. The placers contain small particles of cinnabar and natural 
amalgam probably derived from cinnabar veins in the Copper Basin 
area. 

Production history: The placers in the Copper Basin district were 
worked intermittently until 1931. At that time a few companies 
started placer mining on a large scale in various localities in Copper 
Basin. The Aztec placer claim (and other unlocated claims) was 
active in 1931. The Aztec deposit in Copper Basin Wash (sec. 21, T. 
13 N., R. 3 W.) is in terrace gravels cemented by copper carbonate 
and oxide minerals. Most of the large-scale placer mining was appar- 
ently concentrated in the southwestern part of the placer field; dur- 
ing the early 1930's the Forbach and Easton Co., the Skull Valley 
Corp., and the Gold Star Placer Co. worked these deposits. Un- 
fortunately, lack of detailed maps precludes location of any of these 
claims. 

Source: The source of the placer gold in Copper Basin is reported to 
be gold-bearing tourmaline-quartz veins of Precambrian age (Johns- 
ton and Lowell, 1961). 



YAVAPAI COUNTY 



65 



Literature: 

Engineering and Mining Journal, 1933a: Results of sampling placer 
ground in Spruce Canyon. 

Gardner and Johnson, 1935: Depth of gravel; type of bedrock; 
accessory minerals in placer gravels; size of nuggets; placer op- 
erations. 

Girand, 1932: Describes gravels in Mexican Gulch. 
Johnston and Lowell, 1961: General bedrock geology; source of 
placer gold. 

Mining Journal, 1932a: Reports recovery of nugget weighing 6 ounces 

from Chase placer. 
U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1929, 1931: Names placer-bearing creeks and 

placer claims. 

1934-35: Names placer creeks; placer-mining operations. 

Wilson, 1961: Location; extent and character of gold-bearing gravels; 

size of gold particles; accessory minerals in placers; placer-mining 

activity during the period 1932-33. 

64. GRANITE CREEK 

Location: North flank of the Bradshaw Mountains and in Chino 

Valley. Tps. 13-17 N., R. 2 W. 
Topographic maps: All 15-minute quadrangles— Mount Union, Pres- 

cott, Paulden. 

Geologic map: Krieger, 1965, Geologic map and sections of the Prescott 
and Paulden quadrangles, Arizona (pis. 1, 2), scale 1:48,000. 

Access: U.S. Highway 89 parallels Granite Creek in the Bradshaw 
Mountains, leads north, parallel to Granite Creek 22 miles to Del Rio. 

Extent: Granite Creek heads on the north flank of the Bradshaw 
Mountains and flows north into Chino Valley. Most of the placers 
are found in the upper drainage of Granite Creek between Prescott 
and the head of the creek (T. 13 N., R. 2 W., Mount Union and 
Prescott quadrangles). Gold was recovered from the gravels of the 
lower reaches of Granite Creek as far north as Granite Dells (sec. 
12 T. 14 N., R. 2 W., Prescott quadrangle), and a little gold was 
recovered from creek gravels near Del Rio (sees. 22 and 23, T. 17 N., 
R. 2 W., Paulden quadrangle). The gold reported between Granite 
Dells and Del Rio was found in washes and in pediment and terrace 
gravels. 

Production history: The placers in Granite Creek south of Prescott 
were discovered in the 1860's and actively worked during the 1880's. 
Sparks (1917) states that the town of Prescott "owes its present 
beautiful situation * * * to the fortunes made by placer miners in 
Granite Creek." This statement is perhaps an exaggeration, but the 



66 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



town is constructed upon some minor placers, as Wilson (1961, p. 
56) reports that small nuggets were found in gravels uncovered by 
building excavations in Prescott. Apparently, the placers on the 
mountain slope were very rich; one placer miner reportedly re- 
covered $20,000 in placer gold from New England Gulch (probably 
before 1872), a branch of Granite Creek about 4 miles south of 
Prescott. The placers are located in that part of the Gulch in the 
NW14 sec. 21, T. 13 N., R. 2 W., (Mount Union quadrangle). 

Source: According to Lindgren (1926, p. 108), the lodes in the northern 
foothills of the Bradshaw Mountains are of Precambrian age. The 
origin of placers located north of Prescott on Granite Creek is 
unknown. 

Literature: 

Krieger, 1965: Location of gold-bearing gravels. 
Lindgren, 1926: States that gold was recovered at Del Rio. 
Sparks, 1917: Notes placers in Granite Creek at Prescott. 
Wilson, 1933: Production from New England Gulch. 
1961: Location; history (4th ed., 1933). 

65. EUREKA (BAGDAD) DISTRICT 

Location: Burro Creek, Santa Maria River, and the vicinity of Bagdad, 
Tps. 12-15 N., Rs. 8-10 W. 

Topographic maps: Prescott 2-degree sheet, Army Map Service; Bag- 
dad 15-minute quadrangle; Congress 30-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic maps: 

Anderson, Scholz, and Strobell, 1955, Geologic map of the Bagdad 
area, Yavapai County, Arizona (pi. 3), scale 1:20,000. 

Arizona Bureau of Mines, 1958, Geologic map of Yavapai County, 
scale 1:375,000. 

Access: Bagdad is accessible by an improved highway that leads north- 
west from Hillside, about 35 miles to Bagdad. Access to other areas 
is unknown. 

Extent: Small placers are found in widely scattered areas in the Eureka 
district. Gold was recovered during the late 1850's at Old Placers near 
the Cowboy mine, probably located in or near sec. 14, T. 14 N., R. 
9 W. (Bagdad quadrangle). Other placers, whose exact location is 
unknown, are along Burro Creek northwest of Bagdad (Prescott 
2-degree sheet) in the vicinity of the Santa Maria River southwest 
of Bagdad (Prescott 2-degree sheet) and in unnamed gulches north- 
west of Hillside. 

Production history: The placers in the Eureka district have been worked 
intermittently on a small scale since the late 1850's. In 1875, placers 
were discovered in the Santa Maria area. These deposits were dry- 
washed that year and yielded a nugget valued (at that time) $50 to 



YUMA COUNTY 



67 



$60. During this century, the deposits throughout this area have been 
drywashed intermittently with small gold recovery. 

Source: The placers near the Cowboy mine were probably derived 
from erosion of the gold-bearing vein mined there; the other de- 
posits were probably derived from small veins in the vicinity of the 
placers. 

Literature: 

Raymond, 1877: Reports placer discovery; describes size of gold in 

Santa Maria River. 
U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1934-35: Placers recovered from Burro Creek, 

Santa Maria River, and gulches northwest of Hillside. 
U.S. Geological Survey, 1922: Placers recovered from Burro Creek 

and other unnamed creeks. 
Wilson, 1961: History; production. 

OTHER DISTRICTS 

66. LINCOLN CREEK 

Placer gold was recovered from Lincoln Creek, apparently in the 
vicinity of Jerome, in 1932. 1 cannot locate this creek. 

67. POCKET CREEK 

Placer gold was recovered in 1942 and 1943 by a single operation. 
I cannot locate this creek. 

68. SQUAW CREEK 

Placer gold was recovered in 1933 from a deposit along Squaw Creek, 
a tributary to the Aqua Fria River (T. 9 N., R. 2 E.) about 2 miles 
north of the junction of Black Canyon and the Aqua Fria River. 

YUMA COUNTY 

69. GILA CITY (DOME) DISTRICT 

Location: North end of the Gila Mountains; south bank of the Gila 

River, T. 8 S., R. 21 W. 
Topographic maps: Laguna Dam and Dome 7i/ 2 -minute quadrangles; 

Laguna 15-minute quadrangle. 
Geologic map: Wilson, 1960, Geologic Map of Yuma County, Arizona, 

scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Yuma, about 13 miles east on State Hi^hwav 95 to 
Blaisdell; light-duty road parallels the Southern Pacific 7 miles east 
to Dome. 

Extent: The Gila City placers occur on the narrow gravel-mantled 
pediment at the north end of the Gila Mountains formed on a 
bedrock of Tertiary sedimentary rocks that are faulted against the 



68 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



schist of the main mountain mass. Gold has been found in gulch 
and bench gravels of Quaternary age that mantle the Tertiary 
sediments to depths of 15 feet. The area of gold-bearing gravel 
extends from i/ 4 mile east of Dome to 3 miles west of Dome, but 
most placer mining is centered around Monitor Gulch, li/ 2 miles 
west of Dome (sec. 11, T. 8 S., R. 21 W., Laguna Dam quadrangle) . 
Most of the gold in the gravels was found at or near bedrock in 
gulches, but much gold was recovered from bench gravels in the 
area. Gravels more than 15 feet above bedrock have not been prof- 
itable. 

Production history: The Gila City placers were discovered in September 
1858 by Colonel Jacob Snively and were actively worked by hundreds 
to thousands of men until about 1865, when the richest gravels were 
depleted. Gila City, a placer boom town that lived only 4 years, was 
near the mouth of Monitor Gulch adjacent to the Southern Pacific 
(NWi/ 4 sec. 11, T. 8 S., R. 21 W.). Lieutenant Sylvester Mowry, a 
noted Arizona miner and pioneer, visited the placers in November 
1858 and reported that men were recovering $30 to $215 per day; 
he witnessed $20 in gold washed from eight shovelfuls of dirt by an 
unexperienced placer miner. 

After the initial boom period, mining continued in the district on 
a much reduced scale; all the known productive ground is said to 
have been worked over at least once. Most of the gold was recovered 
by first drywashing, then by wetwashing the dry-panned concentrates 
at the Gila River. A few large-scale operations have been attempted, 
but these were unsuccessful. 

Source: Wilson (1933, p. 210) states that the gold in the Gila City 
placers probably came from many pockety or small low-grade gold 
veins in the northern end of the Gila Mountains. No high-grade 
gold veins are found in the vicinity of the placers. 

Literature: 

Browne, 1868: History of placer-mining activity. 

Elliott, 1884: History— quotes Lieutenant Mowry's description ol 
placers; placer-mining activity and production in 1858. 

Farish, 1915a, v. 1: Repeats Lieutenant Mowry's description of 
placers. 

Hinton, 1878: History of early placer-mining; quotes Browne's 

(1868) description of early history of Gila City. 
Koschmann and Bergendahl, 1968: History; production. 
Mowry, 1863: Early placer-mining activity. 
Raymond, 1872: Extent; placer-mining operations. 

1874: Production information for 1873. 

Trippel, 1889: Production statistics for 1888. 



YUMA COUNTY 



69 



Wilson, 1933: History; location; production; bedrock geology; char- 
acter of gravels; area of placer-mining activity; source of gold. 
1961: Virtually repeats Wilson (1933). 

70. LAGUNA DISTRICT 

Location: Laguna Mountains north of the Gila River, Tps. 7 and 8 

S., Rs. 21 and 22 W. 
Topographic map: Laguna Dam ly^ minute quadrangle. 
Geologic map: Wilson, 1960, Geologic map of Yuma County, Arizona, 

scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Yuma, about 20 miles east on State Highway 95 to the 
Laguna Mountains; jeep trails and dirt roads lead to different 
placers in the mountains. 

Extent: Three areas of placer concentration are known on the flanks of 
the Laguna Mountains. The McPhaul placer area is on the southern 
margin of the mountains; gravels have been drywashed from the 
Gila River to about I14 miles north of McPhaul Bridge (sec. 33, 
T. 7 S., R. 21 W.; sec. 4, T. 8 S., R. 21 W.). Also owned by 
H. H. McPhaul is the San Pablo placer claim of 160 acres, probably 
located in this same area. The Las Flores placer area is north of 
the McPhaul placer on the southeast slope of the Laguna Mountains. 
These small placers are found near the head of an alluvium-floored 
gulch in the vicinity of the old mines "Golden Queen and India" 
(abandoned mines located near the border of sees. 26 and 35, T. 
7 S., R. 22 W.). Some gold was found in gravels in other gulches on 
the southern margin of the mountains as far south as the Gila River. 

The Laguna Dam placer area is on the east side of the dam on 
the southwest flank of the Laguna Mountains. Gold was found in 
gulches draining the mountains, in the bed of the Colorado River, 
and in potholes in bedrock as high as 100 feet above the river. 
During the construction of the Laguna Dam in 1907, placer nuggets 
and a small gold-quartz vein was found at the river margin; part 
of the placer area was submerged after completion of the dam. 

Production history: The placers at Laguna were worked about the 
time that the placers at Gila City were most active; early production 
is unknown. Production during the 20th century has been small and 
intermittent, and production is often grouped with production from 
the Gila City placers or given under the name "Colorado River 
placers." 

Source: The placers in the three areas of the Laguna Mountains were 
derived from local gold-quartz veins in the metamorphic bedrock of 
the area. 

Literature: 

Koschmann and Bergendahl, 1968: History; placer-mining operations 



70 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



in 1884 or 1885; production. 

Mining Journal, 1941: Placer-mining operations at San Pablo placer. 

Mining Review, 1910a: Notes submerging of placer ground in pot- 
hole area at Laguna Dam. 

Raymond, 1872: History of placer-mining activity. 

71. MUGGINS MOUNTAINS PLACERS 

Location: In the Muggins Mountains, north of the Gila River, Tps. 

7 and 8 S., Rs. 19 and 20 W. 
Topographic maps: All 15-minute quadrangles— Wellton, Red Bluff 

Mountain, Laguna, Fortuna. 
Geologic map: Wilson, 1960, Geologic map of Yuma County, Arizona, 

scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Yuma, 13 miles east on State Highway 95 to Blaisdell; 
7 miles east on light-duty road to Dome. From there, dirt roads 
lead 10 miles northeast to the Muggins Mountains. 

Extent: The only information I have found (other than production 
data) that describes the placers in the Muggins Mountains is that 
given by Wilson. The placers are found in the southern and central 
parts of the Muggins Mountains in the vicinity of Klothos Temple 
and Vinegaroon Wash. 

Placers in the southern part of the range are in Burro Canyon 
(unlocated) and small canyons in the vicinity of Klothos Temple 
(sec. 1, T. 8 S., R. 20 W., Laguna quadrangle) and at the southern 
end of Long Mountain (sec. 7, T. 8 S., R. 19 W., Fortuna quad- 
rangle). The gold-bearing gravels in Burro Canyon occur in ancient 
bars several feet above the stream channel and in the present stream 
channel. The gold occurs as particles as much as 0.15 inch in 
diameter and is concentrated at or near bedrock. 

The placers in the central part of the range are near the head- 
ward forks of Vinegaroon Wash (which Wilson describes as a long 
northwestward-trending canyon that bisects the range) in T. 7 S., 
R. 19 W. (Laguna and Red Bluff Mountain quadrangles). 

Production history: The placers in the Muggins Mountains have ap- 
parently been known for many years, but they have not been so 
actively worked as other placers in the same vicinity. They were 
probably most actively placered during the late 1800's; during the 
20th century small-scale placer mining was carried on until 1942. 

Source: The placer gravels in Burro Canyon are derived from a Mio- 
cene terrestrial conglomerate that contains detrital gold eroded from 
gold-bearing quartz veins in the crystalline rocks in the range. The 
minor placers in nearby small canyons and at the southern end of 
Long Mountain probably have a similar origin. 

The gravels in Vinegaroon Wash, which reportedly yielded many 



YUMA COUNTY 



71 



rich pockets of gold, are thought to have been derived from erosion 
of the adjacent metamorphic rocks, which contain gold-bearing veins. 
Literature: 

Wilson, 1933: Location; source. 

1961: Location; extent; size and distribution of gold; source; 

placer-mining activity during the period 1932-33. 

72. CASTLE DOME DISTRICT 

Location: Southwest flank of the Castle Dome Mountains in the 

vicinity of Thumb Peak, Tps. 4 and 5 S., R. 18 W. 
Topographic map: Castle Dome Mountains 15-minute quadrangle. 
Geologic map: Wilson, 1960, Geologic map of Yuma County, scale 

1:375,000. ' 

Access: From Yuma, about 24 miles east and north on State Highway 
95 to light-duty road leading east about 15 miles to jeep trail leading 
north along Big Eye Wash. 

Extent: The placers in the Castle Dome district are reportedly lo- 
cated east and south of the Big Eye mine, a gold-quartz mine, at 
the head of Big Eye Wash, north of Thumb Peak (approximately 
sec. 34, T. 4 S., R. 18 W., unsurveyed). The gold is found near 
bedrock in gulches, but the exact location is unknown. 

Production history: The placers are said to have been discovered in 
1884, but the description of the discovery given equally fits the Tank 
Mountains placers (No. 73). Production during the 20th century 
was apparently small but nearly continuous until 1944. During the 
period 1940-42, a few hundred ounces of placer gold was recovered 
yearly from the Ocatilla placer (unlocated) by miners using a 
Stebbins dry concentrator. 

Source: The gold is thought to be derived from the gold-quartz veins 
in the vicinity of the placers. The Castle Dome district is more 
famous for lead-silver veins near the Castle Dome mine (at the 
west side of the range) than for the gold-quartz veins, which are 
found in the eastern part of the range. 

Literature: 

Trippel, 1888: Notes placer activity. 

U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1940-42: Reports operations at Ocatilla 
placer. 

Wilson, 1933: General location; production. 

1961: General location; distribution of gold; source; production. 

73. TANK MOUNTAINS PLACERS 

Location: At the north end of the Tank Mountains near Engesser Pass 
and at the southeastern foothills of the Tank Mountains, T. 2 S., 
Rs. 15 and 16 W.; T. 4 S., R. 13 W. 



72 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Topographic maps: Engesser Pass and Palomas Mountains 15-minute 
quadrangles. 

Geologic map: Wilson, 1960, Geologic map of Yuma County, Arizona, 
scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Yuma, 70 miles east on U.S. Highway 80 to Dateland, 
9 miles north to light-duty road 3 miles south of Horn: from there, 
north on dirt roads 25 miles to the south edge of the Tank Moun- 
tains. Dirt roads lead into and around the mountains. 

Extent: Placers are in many parts of the Tank Mountains and have 
been worked on a small scale since the 1870's. The only information 
I have found on the extent of these deposits is that given by Wilson, 
who describes two areas of placer concentration— near Engesser Pass 
and near Puzzles Mountain. 

The Engesser placer is at the north end of the Tank Mountains (in 
the vicinity of the boundary between T. 2 S., R. 15 and 16 W., En- 
gesser Pass quadrangle); the gold was recovered from gravels in the 
main gulch below the Engesser prospect (sometimes called the 
Johnnie Prospect) and from gravels in smaller nearby gulches. 

The Puzzles area placer is in the southeastern foothills of the 
Tank Mountains, in the vicinity of a low ridge locally called Puzzles 
Mountains (NW14 T. 4 S., R. 13 W.; Palomas Mountains quad- 
rangle). The gold was recovered from shallow bench and stream 
gravels on the pediment near the Puzzles, Golden Harp, Ramey, 
and Regal prospects and is said to be coarser than the gold recovered 
near Engesser Pass. 

Production history: The placers have apparently been worked inter- 
mittently on a very small scale since the 1870's, but because of the 
relative isolation of the district compared with those on the Gila 
River, very little information has been published. Wilson suggests 
that the placers in the Engesser mine area were probably worked 
earlier and with greater profit than the placers in the Puzzles area. 
Burchard describes the 1884 discovery of placers located 50 miles 
from Castle Dome Landing and 80 miles southeast of Ehrenberg; 
these deposits were probably found in the Tank Mountains, per- 
haps in the Engesser placer area. A small production of placer gold 
was reported from the Engesser area in 1936. The placers in the 
Puzzles area, which is 5 miles north of the Palomas Mountains, 
were actively drywashed in the early 1900's and probably produced 
placer gold attributed to the Palomas Mountains. 

Source: The placers in the Tank Mountains were derived from local 
gold-bearing veins, which are mined at the Engesser, Puzzles, Golden 
Harp, Ramey, and Regal prospects. 



YUMA COUNTY 



73 



Literature: 

Burchard, 1884: New placer discovery; location; discoverer named; 

distribution of gold; production. 
1885: Repeats 1884 description; adds information on size and 

shape of gold; source. 
Wilson, 1933: Location; history; source; bedrock geology. 
1961: Virtually repeats information in Wilson (1933). 

74. KOFA DISTRICT 

Location: Kofa Mountains, T. 2 S., R. 17 W. 
Topographic map: Kofa Butte 15-minute quadrangle. 
Geologic maps: 

Jones, 1916, Geologic reconnaissance map of the Kofa Mountains, 

Arizona (pi. 5), scale 1:125,000. 
Wilson, 1960, Geologic map of Yuma County, Arizona, scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Yuma, 59 miles east and north on State Highway 95 to 
dirt road leading east about 15 miles to dirt road leading about 10 
miles north to the Kofa Mountains. 

Extent: Many gulches in the southern and northeastern part of the 
Kofa Mountains are said to contain gold-bearing gravels; the only 
placer area described is in a westward-trending wash just north 
of the King of Arizona mine (sees. 1 and 12, T. 2 S., R. 17 W.). 
The gold-bearing debris consists of boulders and fragments of meta- 
morphic and volcanic rocks and ranges in thickness from a few 
feet to 70 feet. The gold in the gravels is coarse and occurs near 
bedrock. 

Very little information has been found relating to other placers 
in the Kofa Mountains. An underground placer mine, the Alamo 
mine, is said to be located in conglomerate and to have high gold 
values; the Alamo mine might be located near Alamo Spring in the 
Kofa Mountains (T. 1 N., R. 16 W.). 

Production history: The only placer of importance in the area is the 
deposit north of the King of Arizona mine; the total production to 
1914 was estimated at $40,000. During the 20th century small-scale 
intermittent placer-mining activity has produced small amounts of 
gold from this area. No production is known from the Alamo mine. 

Source: According to Jones (1916), who studied the Kofa placer in 
detail, the source of the gold was small auriferous veins in the meta- 
morphic rocks exposed north of the placer deposits in sec. 1, T. 2 S., 
R. 17 W., and not from the King of Arizona mine. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Virtually repeats description of Jones (1916). 
Jones, 1916: Location; production; placer-mining activity; thickness 
of gold-bearing gravel; size and distribution of gold; source. 



74 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



McConnell, 1911: Alamo placer; gold values in conglomerate. 
Wilson, 1933: Quotes Jones (1916), production from 1914 to 1928. 
1961: Quotes Jones (1916), placer-mining activity and pro- 
duction per man during the period 1932-33. 

75. ELLSWORTH DISTRICT 

Location: In the Granite Wash Mountains, southwest of the McMullen 
Valley, and in the Little Harquahala Mountains south of McMullen 
Valley, Tps. 5 and 6 N., R. 14 W.; T. 4 N., R. 13 W. 

Topographic maps: Salome and Hope 15-minute quadrangles. 

Geologic map: Wilson, 1960, Geologic map of Yuma County, Arizona, 
scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Yuma, 84 miles north on State Highway 95 to Quartzite; 
east 30 miles on U.S. Highway 60-70 to Hope. Dirt roads lead north 
about 5 miles to placer ground in the Granite Wash Mountains and 
southeast about 10 miles to vicinity of the Little Harquahala placers. 

Extent: Gold-bearing gravels are found in many small gulches in the 
southeastern part of the Granite Wash Mountains and the south- 
western part of the Little Harquahala Mountains. 

Gulches near the Desert mine in the Granite Wash Mountains 
(sec. 21, T. 5 N., R. 14 W., unsurveyed, Salome quadrangle) were 
profitably drywashed about 1895. Placers were also found about 3 
miles north of the Desert mine in the vicinity of the old Yellow 
Bird mine; gold-bearing gravels locally called Dutch Henry's dig- 
gings were located in the second wash south of the Yellow Bird 
Camp and west of the Arizona Northern prospect (sees. 32 and 33, 
T. 6 N., R. 14 W., unsurveyed, Salome quadrangle). 

Placers in the Little Harquahala Mountains (T. 4 N., R. 13 W., 
Hope quadrangle) were worked from about 1884 to 1888 (at that 
time the area was known as the Centennial district). According to 
Burchard (1885), "Every gulch below the ore bodies (which include 
the Alps Group— unlocated) contains considerable placer gold which 
is flat but coarse"; Wilson (1961) reports that in 1886 and 1887 
placers were worked in Harquahala Gulch in the vicinity of the 
Harquahala (Bonanza) mine, which was not discovered until 1888. In 
1934 some placer gold was recovered from the Concepcion claim, 8 
miles south of Wenden; although this claim is not identified on the 
topographic maps, it is probably located on the north flank of the 
mountains. 

Production history: Early production from the placers in the Ellsworth 
district is only poorly known. One report indicates that 2 ounces 
per day was recovered for an unspecified short time from the 
placers near the Desert mine; gold worth $9,000 was recovered from 



YUMA COUNTY 



75 



these deposits about 1895. During 1888, $12,500 was recovered from 
the placers in the Harquahala Mountains (Centennial district). 

During the first 30 years of the 20th century, the placers were 
intermittently mined on a small scale. 
Source: The gold in the placers found in the Granite Wash Mountains 
was derived from small gold-quartz lenses in the schists of the area. 
Bancroft (1911, p. 98, 101) suggests that these veinlets formed after, 
but as a result of, the intrusion of the large granitic mass of Salome 
Peak. 

The deposits in the Little Harquahala Mountains were probably 
derived by erosion of the Harquahala and similar veins in the area. 
Literature: 

Bancroft, 1911: Locates small placers in Granite Wash Mountains; 

history; production; source. 
Burchard, 1885: Notes presence of placer gold. 

Mining World, 1909: Notes approximate year of discovery; early 

placer production. 
Trippel, 1889: Production statistics for 1888. 

Wilson, 1961: Harquahala Gulch placer— location; history; produc- 
tion. 

76. TRIGO DISTRICT (COLORADO RIVER PLACERS) 

Location: West flank of the Trigo Mountains. T. 2 S., R. 23 W.; 

Tps. 3 and 4 S., Rs. 23 and 24 W. 
Topographic maps: All 7i/ 2 -minute quadrangles— Picacho NW, Pica- 

cho, Cibola. 

Geologic map: Wilson, 1960, Geologic map of Yuma County, Arizona, 
scale 1:375,000. 

Access: From Yuma, 71 miles north on State Highway 95 to Cibola 
Road, which leads 36 miles west to Cibola. One placer area is 
about 6 miles east of Cibola in the vicinity of the Hardt Gold mine, 
which is accessible by a dirt road. The Colorado River placers are 
about 13 miles south of Cibola and are accessible by a dirt road 
and jeep trial that parallels the river. 

Extent: Small placers have been worked in dry washes in the Trigo 
Mountains for many years, but the location of these deposits is not 
described in the literature. Placers have been worked in drywashes 
south of the Hardt Gold mine in T. 2 S., R. 23 W., approximately 
sees. 1 and 2 (R. T. Moore, Arizona Bureau of Mines, oral commun., 
1969). 

Gold has been recovered from gravels along the west flank of the 
Trigo Mountains and possibly from Colorado River sands for many 
years. Very little information has been found about these deposits, 



76 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



which are located in the Paradise Valley section of the Colorado 
River Valley (Tps. 3 and 4 S., R. 24 W.). 

Production history: Placers were mined in the Trigo Mountains as 
early as 1866, when placer activity was noted in the Silver sub- 
district (T. 3 S., R. 23 W.). No estimate of early production is 
known. Placer-mining activity has been small scale throughout the 
1900's and variously credited to the Trigo district and the Colorado 
River placers by the U.S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbooks. 
Most of the placer gold was recovered from the Colorado River 
area, which was worked by many itinerant miners during the 1930's. 
From 1950 to 1966, these deposits were mined yearly by dry con- 
centration at the "Colorado River Valley property"; descriptions of 
the deposit and production from 1960 to 1966 is held confidential 
by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. 

Source: Small gold-bearing quartz veins in fault zones in schists in the 
Hardt mine area have been worked at the Hardt mine, the Board- 
way prospect, and the Jupiter claims (all in the Cibola subdistrict). 
The Boardway prospect and the Jupiter claim, located south of the 
Hardt mine, probably represent the type of gold deposit from which 
the placers were derived. 

Literature: 

Burchard, 1882: Notes placer activity in the Silver subdistrict in 
1866. 

U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1950, 1951, 1953: Reports production from 
the "Colorado River Valley Property." 

Wilson, 1961: Reports placer mining in Trigo Mountains; distribu- 
tion and shape of gold (location is in error owing to lack of 
surveyed townships and ranges at the time of writing, about 
1933). 

Wilson, 1933: Describes lode mines in Cibola region and other mines 
in Trigo Mountains. 

77. LA PAZ DISTRICT 

Location: West flank of the Dome Rock Mountains, Tps. 3 and 4 N., 
Rs. 21 and 22 W. 

Topographic maps: Dome Rock Mountains 15-minute quadrangle; 

La Paz Mountain 7i/ 2 -minute quadrangle. 
Geologic maps: 

Jones, 1915, Map showing geology of southern part of Colorado 
River Indian Reservation and location of placers near Quartzsite, 
Arizona (pi. 4), scale approximately 3 miles = 1 in. 

Wilson, 1960, Geologic map of Yuma County, Arizona, scale 
1:375,000. 

Access: From Yuma, 84 miles north on State Highway 95 to Quartzsite, 



YUMA COUNTY 



77 



about 10 miles west on U.S. Highway 60-70 to placers, which are 
adjacent to the highway and in nearby gullies and washes. 

Extent: Placers in the La Paz district are found in Goodman Arroyo 
and Arroyo La Paz, major west-trending drainages, and in Ferrar, 
Garcia, and Ravenna Gulches, tributaries to the major drainages. 
Placers were worked as far west as the outskirts of the town of 
Ehrenberg (sees. 15 and 16, T. 3 N., R. 22 W.). 

The gold-bearing gravels range in thickness from a few feet on 
the mountain slopes to an unknown depth in Arroyo, La Paz, and 
Gonzales Wash (the wash through which U.S. Highway 60-70 is 
built); gold is distributed throughout the gravels, but the richest 
parts were found near bedrock. Ferrar Gulch (sees. 25 and 36, T. 
4 N., R. 21 W.) reportedly contained the richest gravels in the 
area, and it was from this gulch that Juan Ferrar recovered a nugget 
weighing more than 47 ounces. 

Production history: The placers in the La Paz district were discovered 
by Captain Pauline Weaver in January 1862, when he panned a 
small amount of gold from a gulch called El Arollo de la Tenaja 
in the Dome Rock Mountains. Immediately thereafter, Weaver re- 
turned to Yuma, told about his discovery, and on his return to the 
mountains was joined and followed by other prospecting parties 
(Browne, 1868, p. 454). According to Browne, this advance party 
soon found good prospects (one man, Jose Redondo, recovered a 
nugget weighing more than 2 oz in a place less than a mile south 
of Weaver's camp) and returned to Laguna for supplies. The real 
rush to the new placer soon followed. About $1 million in placer 
gold was recovered from the placers the first year and another 
$1 million by 1864, when the placers were worked out. Since that 
time, the La Paz district has been at times part of the Colorado 
River Indian Reservation, and in consequence, small-scale placer- 
mining activity declined and large-scale placer-mining plans were 
interrupted. During the 20th century, while many large-scale op- 
erations were active in the Plomosa district to the east, the La Paz 
placers were worked only by individuals. 

The La Paz placers are famous for the large nuggets recovered, 
although most of the gold occurred as pieces ranging in weight from 
0.0025 to 0.5 ounce. Browne (1868, p. 454) describes large nuggets 
from the gravels, some weighing 26, 27, and 47 ounces, that were 
free of all foreign material, even quartz, and thought it possible that 
many larger nuggets were recovered but not shown for various 
practical or superstitious reasons. The largest nugget recovered 
from the La Paz placers was valued at about $1,150 (about 65 oz) 
and assayed 870 fine (Heikes and Yale, 1913, p. 259; Jones, 1915, 



78 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



p. 50); Jones attributes the recovery of this nugget to Juan Ferrar. 
As late as the 1930's, a nugget valued at $900 (about 45 oz) was 
recovered by a prospector (MacHunter and Henderson, 1958); most 
of the large nuggets were found years earlier; later workers found 
only smaller particles. 

Source: The discovery of the La Paz placers led to intensive prospecting 
for large gold-bearing veins, but major lode mines have not been 
developed. The gold in the placers is attributed to erosion of the 
many gold-bearing veins distributed through the metamorphic rocks 
in the area. Some of these veins, such as the Goodman vein, which 
trends northwest-southeast across the north end of Ferrar Gulch 
and is exposed in Gonzales Wash, have been mined in the past. 
Jones (1915, p. 54) states that the decomposition of these veins has 
produced the placer gold, as the largest areas of placer gravels are 
found along the more persistent gold-quartz veins. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Location; quotes description of Jones (1915); placer- 
mining operations; gold values per cubic yard; production. 
Bancroft, 1911: Quotes Browne (1868). 

Browne, 1868: Gives a complete history of discovery and early 

activity in placers in the La Paz district on p. 454-455. 
Heikes and Yale, 1913: Location; thickness of gravels; gold values 

per cubic yard; size of nuggets; placer-mining operations. 
Hinton, 1878: History of early placer mining; later placer discoveries. 
Jones, 1915: Detailed description of La Paz placers; mining methods; 

depth and extent of workings; amount and type of gold removed. 

Relations to local geology discussed. 
Koschmann and Bergendahl, 1968: History; production. 
MacHunter and Henderson, 1958: Popular account of discovery 

and subsequent development of La Paz diggings. Photographs of 

area included. 
Randolph, 1901: Size of nuggets recovered. 
Raymond, 1872: Geology; origin of the placers. 

1874: Production information for 1873. 

Trippel, 1889: Production statistics for 1888. 

Wilson, 1961: History; location; placer-mining techniques; source; 
quotes descriptions of earlier studies. 

78. LA CHOLLA. MIDDLE CAMP, AND ORO FINO PLACERS 

Location: East side of the Dome Rock Mountains, Tps. 3 and 4 N., 
R. 20 W. 

Topographic map: Dome Rock Mountains 15-minute quadrangle. 
Geologic map: Wilson, 1960, Geologic map of Yuma County, Arizona, 
scale 1:375,000. 



YUMA COUNTY 



79 



Access: From Quartzsite it is about 5 miles west on U.S. Highway 60-70 
to Dome Rock Mountains. Dirt roads lead from the highway to 
adjacent placers. 

Extent: Placers are found on the east side of the Dome Rock Moun- 
tains in three localities: La Cholla placers, located south of U.S. 
Highway 60-70 in an area 4 to 5 miles long from east to west 
(NEJ4 T. 3 N., R. 20 W.); at the southern base of the Middle 
Camp Mountain (approximately SW14 T. 4 N., R. 20 W., un- 
surveyed); Oro Fino placers, located north of U.S. Highway 60-70 
and southeast of the Middle Camp placers (SE14 T. 4 N., R. 20 
W., unsurveyed). 

Production history: The placers on the east side of the Dome Rock 
Mountains have been worked intermittently since the 1860's. The 
placer camps are usually considered to be part of the Plomosa 
mining district and production records are usually grouped with 
the Plomosa placers, 12 miles east. The deposits at La Cholla and 
Middle Camp have been worked on a small scale throughout this 
century. From the 1930's until 1941, the La Cholla placers were 
the most active in the area; large-scale operations by the La Posa 
Development Co. at the Arizona Drift mine during the period 1939- 
41 accounted for most of the placer production. This company 
worked a channel on bedrock that was 6 feet thick and 50-150 
feet wide at a depth of 140 feet. No estimates of the average value 
of the gravels worked by this operation have been found, but the 
gravels worked in an earlier operation contained in places as much 
as 1 ounce of gold per cubic yard, and the tailings were valued at 
85 cents per cubic yard. 

Source: Gold-quartz veins in the mountains immediately adjoining the 
placer deposits are the source of the placer gold. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Quotes Heikes and Yale (1913). 

Berger, 1932: Placer-mining techniques and operations at La Cholla. 
Gardner and Johnson, 1935: Depth of gravels; width of gold-bearing 

channel; placer-mining operations. 
Heikes and Yale, 1913: Location; types of gravel at different 

localities; size of nuggets; past placer-mining history. 
Jones, 1915: Placer-mining operations at Oro Fino; gold values in 

gravels. 

Mining Journal, 1939a: Operations by La Posa Development Co., 
number of men employed; yards of gravel mined per day; equip- 
ment used; thickness of pay gravel; width of channel. 

U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1940: Reports cubic yards of gravel mined 
at La Cholla placers in 1939. 



80 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Wilson, 1961: Location; placer-mining activity; distribution of gold- 
bearing gravels. 

79. PLOMOSA DISTRICTS 

Location: West side of the Plomosa Mountains, Tps. 3 and 4 N., R. 
18 W.; T: 2 N., R. 17 W. 

Topographic map: Quartzsite 15-minute quadrangle. 

Geologic map: Miller, 1970, Geologic map of the Quartzsite quad- 
rangle, Yuma County, Arizona, scale 1:62,500. 

Access: From Quartzsite, it is about 5 miles southeast on dirt roads 
to placer area. 

Extent: The Plomosa placers are found at the western edge of the 
Plomosa Mountains in and near Plomosa Wash south of Scaddan 
Mountain (Tps. 3 and 4 N., R. 18 W.). The extent of the placers 
in the Plomosa district is not known, but some reports indicate that 
gold-bearing gravels are found for about 3-4 miles along the 
western edge of the mountains. Most large-scale placer activity was 
apparently concentrated in sees. 3 and 4, T. 3 N., R. 18 W., near 
the old town of Plomosa. Small placers were apparently worked in 
Cave Creek in the southern part of the range (T. 2 N., R. 17 W.). 

Production history: The Plomosa placers were worked in the early 
1860's about the same time as the La Paz placers. Early production 
is unknown, but the extensive diggings remaining from the early 
workers indicate that production was large. The Plomosa placers 
were actively sampled and mined during the 1910's by companies 
using large-scale drywashing machines; these operations attracted 
much attention from mining men at the time, and the resulting 
literature described the gravels and mining techniques in great 
detail. Production records indicate that these operations were not 
a commercial success. Various reports of the average value of the 
gravels claim values as high as $20 per yard in placer gold, but 
more reasonable estimates range between 71 cents to $1.77 per yard. 
The placers worked by the Yuma Consolidated Co. and the Plomosa 
Placer Co. during the period 1915-16 were cemented gravels as thick 
as 140 feet; the gold was concentrated at various horizons in the 
gravels. The placers were steadily mined by individual drywashers 
until the 1950's. 

Source: Gold-bearing veins occur in the metamorphic rocks in the 
immediate vicinity of the placers and are considered to be the 
source of the gold in the gravels. 

Literature: 

Allen, 1922: Quotes Heikes and Yale (1913). 

Bancroft, 1911: Placer-mining techniques and operations; character 
of the placer gravels; source. 



YUMA COUNTY 



81 



Heikes and Yale, 1913: Location; character and thickness of placer 
gravel; gold values per cubic yard; results of sampling gravels; 
placer-mining operations; information is abstracted from a pro- 
fessional report (unpublished) by John A. Church; production 
from 1904 to 1912. 

Jones, 1915: Quotes Bancroft (1911); placer-mining activity in 
1914. 

Keiser, 1916: Describes placer-mining operations and techniques used 
by Yuma Consolidated and Plomosa Placer Cos. 

Koschmann and Bergendahl, 1968: History; production. 

Maltman, 1917: Placer-mining techniques and operations; char- 
acter, thickness of average value of placer ground. 

Mining and Scientific Press, 1916: Note on placer plants operated 
by Yuma Consolidated and Plomosa Placer Cos. Includes average 
value of different gravel horizons in 140-foot-deep hole on Yuma 
Consolidated land. 

Plummer, 1916: Placer-mining techniques and operations by Yuma 
Consolidated Co. and Plomosa Placer properties; character, thick- 
ness, average value of placer gravels; distribution of gold. 

Root, 1912: Gold values in gravels. 

Wilson, 1961: Repeats information given by Bancroft (1911) and 
Heikes and Yale (1913); placer-mining activity during the period 
1932-33. 

OTHER DISTRICTS 

80. CIENGA DISTRICT 

Placer gold was recovered in 1910 from this district, which is in 
the Buckskin Mountains on the east side of the Colorado River just 
south of the junction with the Bill Williams River (T. 10 N., R. 
18 W.). The district contains small copper and gold deposits consisting 
of small pockets of ore minerals in shear zones in sedimentary rocks; 
some pockets were rich in free gold. 
Literature: 

Wilson, Cunningham, and Butler, 1934: Describes lode deposits. 

81. COCOPAH DISTRICT 

Placer gold was credited to this district in 1934. I have found no 
information about a district of this name. 

82. FORTUNA DISTRICT 

The Fortuna district is on the west flank of the Gila Mountains 
at the old Fortuna mine (T. 10 S., R. 20 W.). The Fortuna mine 
was actively worked between 1896 and 1904, producing more than 
$2.5 million in gold. Most of the gold credited to placer production 



82 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



from this area was actually recovered by placer-mining techniques 

used to rework old tailings at the mine. 

Literature: 

Wilson, Cunningham, and Butler, 1934: Describes Fortuna mine. 

83. LA POSA DISTRICT 

This district is in the Wellton Hills (T. 10 S., R. 18 W.) , a small 
range between the Gila Mountains and the Copper Mountains. Many 
low-grade gold-quartz veins occur in the hills and have been mined 
on a small scale. Placer gold was recovered in the early 1900's by 
intermittent prospectors. 
Literature: 

Wilson, 1933: Describes district. 

84. MOHAWK DISTRICT 

One ounce of placer gold was credited to Mohawk in 1940, but no 
information has been found about the source of the gold. The gold 
may have been recovered elsewhere and sold for supplies in Mohawk, 
a station on the Southern Pacific Railroad. 

85. SANTA MARIA DISTRICT 

Placer gold was recovered from this district, also known as the 
Planet district, in 1912 and between 1959 and 1963. Some of the placer 
production is confidential. The Santa Maria district is in the Buckskin 
Mountains, on the south side of the Bill Williams River. The district 
is noted for copper deposits, but some gold ores do occur. Before 
1911 the Planet Copper mine controlled three placer claims in that 
area; their location is not described in the literature. 
Literature: 

Bancroft, 1911: Notes placer claims in area. 

Wilson, Cunningham, and Butler, 1934: Describes gold prospects 
worked during the period 1933-34. 

86. SHEEP TANKS DISTRICT 

Placer gold was recovered from this district in the Little Horn 
Mountains in 1936 and 1940. Most of the gold mineralization in the 
mountains occurs in the area of the Sheep Tanks mine (approximately 
sec. 1, T. 1 S., R. 15 W.), and the placer gold was probably recovered 
from small deposits in that area. 
Literature: 

Wilson, 1933: Describes Little Horn Mountains and Sheep Tanks 
mine. 



GOLD PRODUCTION FROM PLACER DEPOSITS 



83 



87. SONORA DISTRICT 

Three ounces of placer gold was credited to Sonora in 1935, but no 
information has been found about the source of the gold. 

GOLD PRODUCTION FROM PLACER DEPOSITS 

Arizona ranks tenth in the United States (eighth in the western 
continental States) in placer gold production. The U.S. Bureau of 
Mines (1967, p. 15) cites 500,000 troy ounces of placer gold produced 
in Arizona from 1792 to 1964. I estimate that placer gold production 
was at least 564,052 ounces. Districts of largest placer production were 
the Lynx Creek, Big Bug, and Weaver (Rich Hill) districts (Yavapai 
County), the Gila City (Dome), and La Paz district (Yuma County), 
and the Greaterville district (Pima County), all with estimated placer 
production of more than 25,000 ounces. The available production 
information for all placer districts is given in table 1. For comparison, 
I have included table 2, which lists 27 gold districts in Arizona that 
have produced more than 25,000 ounces of gold (from Koschmann 
and Bergendahl, 1968). 

As table 1 clearly shows, Arizona has many small placer-mining 
districts from which only a few ounces of gold has been recovered, 
mostly during the depression years of the 1930's. For most of these 
districts, little information other than production has been found. 
Comparing table 1 with table 2 shows that the major lode-gold dis- 
tricts in the State, except for the Bradshaw Mountains in Yavapai 
County, have had very little placer gold production. 

Most of the placer gold produced in the State of Arizona was 
recovered by tedious work on a small scale by individuals who used 
rockers, pans, sluices, and dry concentrators. In only a few districts 
have large-scale placer-mining operations been successful, although 
many attempts were made to use large dry-concentrating machines. 
The most successful large-scale operations have been in the Lynx 
Creek and the Big Bug districts, Yavapai County, where the presence 
of adequate supplies of water enabled large dredges to mine the gold- 
bearing gravels. Among the largest and most profitable large-scale dry- 
concentrating operations were those in the San Domingo Wash dis- 
trict, Maricopa County, in the Plomosa district, and at La Cholla 
placers, Yuma County; at Copper Basin, Yavapai County, the gravel 
was hauled to a central washing plant where wet methods of recovery 
were used. 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



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88 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Table 2.— Arizona lode-gold production, in ounces 
[Districts having production greater than 25,000 oz] 



County and district Production 



Cochise County: 

1 Bisbee 2,193,000 

2 Tombstone 271,200 

3 Turquoise 70,000 

Gila County: 

4 Banner 26,000 

5 Globe-Miami 191,801 

Graham and Greenlee Counties: 

6 Clifton-Morenci 203,000 

Maricopa County: 

7 Vulture 366,000 

Mohave County: 

8 San Francisco 2,045,400 

9 Wallapai 125.063 

10 Weaver 63,200 

Pima County: 

11 _ Ajo 990,000 

Pinal County: 

12 Mammoth 403,000 

13 Ray 35,250 

14 Superior 398,200 

Santa Cruz County: 

15 Oro Blanco 100,200 

Yavapai County: 

16 Big Bug 584,300 

17 Black Canyon 46,700 

18 Eureka 59,966 

19 Hassayampa-Groom Creek 108,300 

20 Jerome 1,571,000 

21 Lynx Creek-Walker 43,000 

22 Martinez 396,300 

23 Pine Grove-Tiger 130.275 

24 Weaver-Rich Hill 204,000 

25 Ellsworth 134,000 

26 Fortuna 125.H32 

27 Kofa 237,000 



The total amount of placer gold recovered yearly in Arizona from 
1900 to 1968 is graphed in figure 1, which also shows major con- 
tributors to the peak production. 

SUMMARY 

The ultimate source of detrital gold in placer deposits is, for the 
most part, gold-bearing lode deposits, which in Arizona are repre- 
sented by veins in faults, fissures, and shear zones of various sizes. 

Most of the placer gold found in Arizona was derived from systems 
of small gold-quartz veinlets and stringers scattered throughout the 
bedrock of the adjacent mountain ranges; in only a few localities 



SUMMARY 



89 



Activity by many individuals 
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1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 

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1950 



1960 



1968 



Figure 1.— Arizona placer gold production, in ounces. 



was the gold in large placer deposits derived from vein systems of 
sufficient size to encourage lode mining on a large scale. Small placers 
commonly occur near large gold lodes, but are generally not economic. 
The most productive gold veins are those formed during Laramide 
time, which occur in rocks of Precambrian to Laramide (Late Cre- 
taceous and early Tertiary) age. Much gold has been recovered as a 
byproduct from copper and other base-metal ores. Since 1941 the 
large copper mines have been predominant in the production of 
lode gold (Wilson, 1962). 

RELATION BETWEEN PLACER DEPOSITS AND ROCK DEPOSITS 

One of the outstanding characteristics of placer-mining history in 
Arizona is the large number of mining districts in which placer mining, 
albeit some minor, was carried on. A comparison of the placer gold 
production (table 1) with the major lode-gold production (table 2) 
shows that only the Tombstone and Jerome districts had no placer 



90 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



production at all. At Tombstone, the gold occurs as native gold in 
very fine particles; at Jerome, the gold was recovered from copper 
ores as a byproduct. In the mining districts that had a very low 
production of placer gold, the gold occurred as very fine particles, 
commonly included within copper and other base-metal ores, and 
therefore was not concentrated during the erosional cycle (see Kosch- 
mann and Bergendahl, 1968, p. 32-53, for a summary of gold char- 
acteristics in major lode-gold districts in Arizona). 

Most placer deposits in Arizona are found in gullies and arroyos 
developed on alluvial fans or pediments on flanks of mountain ranges; 
a few placers occur as small local concentrations developed in gulch 
and hillside gravels immediately adjacent to the lode source of the 
gold. Wilson (in Webber, 1935) asserts that many of southwestern 
Arizona's largest and richest placers were derived from the erosion of 
numerous auriferous veinlets or stringers. He states 

Ten one-quarter inch stringers with an average of 0.50 of gold per ton through a 
length of 500 feet and a depth of 300 feet could yield $24,000 worth of placer gold 
(with gold at $20.67 per ounce) while a million dollar placer (with the same gold 
value) could result from the erosion of 416 stringer bodies of that same very modest 
width, length, depth, and tenor, provided perfect concentration obtained. 

Typical of the placers formed on extensive alluvial fans or on pedi- 
ments are the San Domingo Wash placers, Maricopa County; the 
Lost Basin-Gold Basin placers, Mohave County; the Canada del Oro 
placers, Pinal County; Rich Hill placers and Copper Basin placers, 
Yavapai County; the Quijotoa, Arivaca, and Greaterville placers, 
Pima County; the Laguna, Gila, and La Paz placers, Yuma County; 
Dos Cabezos placers, Cochise County. The gold-bearing gravels occur 
on hillslopes and in gullies of present-day and older drainage systems; 
the gold is generally concentrated on a false bedrock of caliche- 
cemented gravels but occurs in smaller amounts throughout the 
gravel. 

The placer deposits in the Bradshaw Mountains, Yavapai County, 
are, as a group, the most productive and extensive placers in the 
State. The Bradshaw Mountains are also the locale of many productive 
gold lode deposits (table 2). The placers were productive because 
they were derived from large systems of well-developed gold-quartz 
veins of Laramide and Precambrian ages. They were extensive because 
of the wide distribution of the veins and the vast number of valleys 
and gulches that drain the comparatively well watered Bradshaw 
Mountains. 

Placers found in other, comparatively well watered mountain ranges 
(Globe-Miami district, Gila County; Clifton-Morenci, San Francisco 



SUMMARY 



91 



River districts, Greenlee County), are similar in depositional features 
to the placers in the Bradshaw Mountains, but not in quantity of gold. 

Typical of placers occurring as small local concentrations of gold 
in gravels immediately adjacent to the lode source of the gold are the 
Maud Hill placers, Courtland-Gleeson district, Gold Gulch placers, 
Bisbee-Warren district, Cochise County; Payson placers, Gila County; 
Vulture placers, Maricopa County; Oatman placers, Mohave County; 
Ajo placers, Sierrita placers, Pima County; Eureka placer, Yavapai 
County; Kofa, Harquahala, and Tank Mountains, Yuma County. 

AGE OF PLACER GRAVELS 

All economic placer deposits in the State were formed during the 
Quaternary Period. A few uneconomic deposits in the Bradshaw 
Mountains, Yavapai County (Milk Creek-Slate Creek drainage, and 
possibly some deposits along the Hassayampa River drainage), are 
found in Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The placer deposits in part of 
the Muggins Mountains, Yuma County, and in the Lost Basin dis- 
trict, Mohave County, were apparently derived from low-grade placer 
deposits of late Tertiary age. In only a few places can a maximum 
age for the gold-bearing gravels be estimated. At Gila City, Laguna, 
and the Muggins Mountains, Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary 
rocks form the bedrock of the placers; at Greaterville, parts of a 
bison skeleton considered to be Pleistocene in age was found in a 
placer deposit. It appears from a study of the literature that the gold- 
bearing alluvial deposits of the Bradshaw Mountains are products of 
the present-day drainage system, but a number of small alluvial flats 
in the mountains that may represent earlier erosional cycles may 
contain placer gold. 

AGE OF LODE MINERALIZATION 

The importance of mineralization associated with the Laramide 
orogeny has been emphasized by many geologists who study Arizona 
ore deposits. Most of these studies, and most geochronologic studies 
of ore-bearing rocks, have concentrated on districts in the central and 
southeastern parts of the State. Little is known about the age of 
mineralization of the western and southwestern parts of the State, 
as few detailed geologic studies have been made of the ore-bearing 
rocks of that region. 

Most of the placer gold recovered from deposits in the Bradshaw 
Mountains is thought to be derived from Laramide veins, which are 
more prevalent and contained greater amounts of gold than the 
Precambrian veins. Although most evidence for the age of veins is 



92 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



based on observations of geologic relations between veins and country 
rock, two potassium-argon dates (see Anderson, 1968, p. 1169) on 
granodiorites considered to be genetically related to ore deposits 
demonstrate a Laramide age (64 m.y., 70 m.y.) for the veins in the 
Walker and Big Bug districts. 

A Laramide age is known or assumed for the following other 
important lode deposits from which placer deposits have been derived: 
Maricopa County— Vulture vein, Vulture district; Yavapai County- 
Hillside vein, Eureka district; Octave vein, Weaver district; Yuma 
County— Harquahala vein, Ellsworth district; Fortuna vein, Fortuna 
district. A Laramide age is known or assumed for the following areas 
in which placer deposits derived from small vein systems have been 
found: Cochise County— Gold Gulch, Bisbee-Warren district; Greenlee 
County— small gold veins, Clifton-Morenci district; Pima County— gold 
veins in Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, Greaterville district; Baboqui- 
vari district; Arivaca district; Quijotoa district; Ajo placer, Ajo district; 
Yuma County— Plomosa area, Plomosa district; Kofa placers, Kofa 
district (Kofa vein is assumed to be Laramide, but placers were not 
derived from that vein). 

Placer deposits that have been derived from lodes found in Pre- 
cambrian rocks and that may be Precambrian in age in addition to 
those found in the Bradshaw Mountains, include those in the Globe 
district and the Payson district, Gila County; Lost Basin-Gold Basin 
districts and Chemehuevis district, Mohave County. Many placer 
deposits in Yuma County are derived from small gold veinlets in 
metamorphic rocks that have been considered to be Mesozoic or 
Precambrian in age. Detailed study in one area of Yuma County (the 
Plomosa Mountains, Miller, 1970) indicates that the metamorphic 
rocks exposed are of both ages, but until further study is made of this 
county, the age of mineralization can only be considered unknown. 

Two areas in the State contain placer deposits derived from lode 
deposits of middle and late Tertiary age (post-Laramide). Some gold 
veins in the Dos Cabezas Mountains, Cochise County, have been dated 
at younger than 29 m.y. The most productive gold veins in the State, the 
veins in the San Francisco district, Mohave County, were the source of 
only small amounts of placer gold and are considered to be late Tertiary 
in age. 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



93 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

LITERATURE REFERENCES 

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94 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



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Dinsmore, C. A., 1911a, The San Domingo placers: Mining and Eng. World, v. 35, 

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1911b, Touring the mining section of the Southwest: Mining World, v. 35, p. 

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Doman, R. S., 1922, The lure of Arizona gold was inspiration for Oatman: Mining 
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U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1312-A, 49 p. 



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95 



Elliott, W. W. (publisher), 1884, A history of the Arizona Territory: Flagstaff, Ariz., 

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Early placer-mining history. 
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1931, To Work Dos Cabezas placer: Eng. and Mining Jour., v. 132, p. 509. 

1933a, Trends and developments in the industry— Arizona [Copper Basin dis- 
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County, Arizona: U.S. Bur. Mines Inf. Circ. 6905, 51 p. 



96 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Hafer, Claud, 1911, Vulture mine and others in the Hassayampa [Maricopa County]: 

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Hedburg, Edward, 1909, The Calizona placers, Arizona [Chemehuevis district]: Min- 
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98 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



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1915, Dredge mining operations in Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona: Mining and 

Eng. World, v. 42, p. 377. 
Roseveare, G. H., 1961, Appendix— operation! during 1951-1961, in Wilson, E. D., 

Cold place] and placering in Arizona: Arizona Bur. Mines Bull. 168, p. 119. 
S;ilt Lake Mining Review, 1923, In nearhy states— Arizona [San Francisco district]: 

Salt Cake Mining Rev. v. 25, no. 18, p. 23. 
Sawyer, I>. L., 1932, Sampling a gold placer [Weaver district]: Eng. and Mining Jour., 

v. 133, p. 381-383. 

Schrader, P, C, 1909, Mineral deposit! of the Cerhat Range, Black Mountains and 

Grand Wash Cliffs, Mohave County, Arizona: U.S. Ceol. Survey Bull. 297, 226 p. 
1915, Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona: 

U.S. Ceol. Survey Bull. 582, 373 p. 
Schrader, I C, Stone, R W., and Sanford, S., 1917, Useful minerals of the United 

StkteSi U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 624, 412 p. 
Gold placet Histrif is in Arizona are listed on page 24. 
Sparks, G. M., 1917, Y;ivapai, the land of opportunity: Arizona Mining Jour., v. 1, 

no. 4, p. 14. 

Stephens, B. A.. 1884, Quijotoa mining district guidebook: Tucson, Ariz., Tucson 

Citizen, Printing & Pub. Co. 
Sdpp, i i-., faigler, L. B., Alto, B, R, and Sutherland, H. L., 1967, Reported oc- 

CUrrences of selected minerals ill Arizona: U.S. Geol. Survey Mineral Inv. Resource 

Map MR 46, icale 1:500,000, 
I ovote, VV. I. , 1910, The Clifton Morenci district of Arizona, part 1: Mining and Sci. 

Press, v. 101, p 770-773. 
Trippel, Alex, 1888, Report of the Dire tor of the Mint upon production of the 

precious metals in the United States during the calendar year 1887: Washington, 

U.S. Bur. Mint, 375 p. [Arizona, p. 120-142]. 
I8KI Report of the Direr tor of the Mint upon production of the previous metals 

In the United States during the calendar y<*ar 1888: Washington, U.S. Bur. Mint, 

246 p. [Arizona, p. 88-91 1. 
Trisehka, Carl, 1938, Bishee district, in Some Arizona ore deposits: Arizona Bur. 

Mines Bull. 145, p. 32 41 . 



100 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1925-34, Mineral resources of the United States [annual 

volumes, 1924-31]: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office. 
1933-68, Minerals Yearbook [annual volumes, 1932-68]: Washington, U.S. Govt. 

Printing Office. 

Information relating to placers cited in text is referenced by year of pertinent 
volume. 

1967, Production potential of known gold deposits in the United States: U.S. 

Bur. Mines Inf. Circ. 8331, 24 p. 
Gives estimates of total placer-gold production in troy ounces. 
U.S. Geological Survey, 1896-1900, Annual reports [17th through 21st, 1895-1900]: 
Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office. 

1883-1924, Mineral resources of the United States [annual volumes, 1882-1923]: 

Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office. 
Information relating to placers cited in text is referenced by year of pertinent 
volume. 

1968, U.S. Geological Survey Heavy Metals Program progress report 1966 and 

1967 [Lost Basin and Gold Basin districts]: U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. 560, 24 p. 

Watson, H. B., 1918, Rich Hill observations: Arizona Mining Jour., v. 2, no. 7, p. 
8-10, 26. 

Webber, B. N., 1935, Bajada placers of the arid southwest: Am. Inst. Mining Metall. 
Engineers Trans., v. 115, Mining Geology, p. 378-391. 
Ascribes genesis of slope deposits "Bajadas" primarily to arid conditions, wind 
work, and sheet floods. Compares "Bajada" placers to stream placers. E. D. Wilson's 
discussion (p. 391) emphasizes work of water in rills and channels and derivation 
of placers from small gold-bearing veins. 

Weber, R. H., 1948, Geology of the east-central portion of the Huachuca Mountains, 
Arizona [abs.]: Geol. Soc. America Bull. 59, no. 12, p. 1384-1385. 

Willis, C. F., 1915, Las Guijas placer: Arizona, the State Mag. and Pathfinder, Nov. 
1915, p. 10. 

1916a, Arizona: Arizona Bur. Mines Bull. 6, 16 p. 

1916b, Mining in Arizona: Mining and Sci. Press, v. 112, p. 299-300. 

General state of mining in Arizona at that time including a location map of 15 
well-known placer districts. 

Wilson, E. D., 1927, Geology and ore deposits of the Courtland-Gleeson region, Ari- 
zona: Arizona Bur. Mines Bull. 123, 79 p. 

1933, Geology and mineral deposit of southern Yuma County, Arizona: Arizona 

Bur. Mines Bull. 134, 234 p. 

1941, Tungsten deposits of Arizona: Arizona Bur. Mines Bull. 148, 54 p. 

1951, Arizona lead and zinc deposits: Arizona Bur. Mines Bull. 158, 115 p. 

1961, Gold placers and placering in Arizona [6th ed.], revised: Arizona Bur. 

Mines Bull. 168, 124 p.; preceded by: 1927, 2d ed., revised, Bull. 124, 60 p.; 1932, 
Bull. 132, pt. 1, p. 1-71; 1933, 4th ed., Bull. 135, 90 p.; 1937, 4th ed., revised, 
Bull. 142, 90 p.; 1952, 5th ed., revised, Bull. 160, pt. 1, p. 11-68. 
Series of bulletins that describe the location, extent, history, placer-mining activity, 

and production of most Arizona placers. Early bulletins are virtually identical with 

the sixth edition. Bulletins describe details of mining activity during the 1932-33 

mining season, when most of the districts described were visited. Production data 

in text have been revised for each reissue of the bulletin up to the sixth edition. 

1962, A resume of the geology of Arizona: Arizona Bur. Mines Bull. 171, 140 p. 

Summarizes age of bedrock and of lode deposits; history of mining. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



101 



Wilson, E. D., Cunningham, J. B., and Butler, G. M., 1934, Arizona lode gold mines 

and gold mining: Arizona Bur. Mines Bull. 137, 261 p. 
Wilson, E. D., O'Haire, R. T., and McCrory, F. J., 1961, Map and index of Arizona 

mining districts: Arizona Bur. Mines, scale 1:1,000,000. 
Wood, H. R., 1929, History of mining in Yavapai County, Arizona: Mining Jour. 

[Phoenix, Ariz.], v. 13, no. 8, p. 9, 35-36. 

GEOLOGIC MAP REFERENCES 

[References keyed by number to districts given in text] 
Anderson, C. A., and Blacet, P. M., 1972a, Geologic map of the Mayer quadrangle, 
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1:62,500. 
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1972b, Geologic map of the Mount Union quadrangle, Yavapai County, Arizona: 

U.S. Geol. Survey Geol. Quad. Map GQ-997, scale 1:62,500. 
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Anderson, C. A., Scholz, E. A., and Strobell, J. D., Jr., 1955, Geology and ore deposits 
of the Bagdad area, Yavapai County, Arizona: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 278, 
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Arizona Bureau of Mines, 1958, Geologic map of Yavapai County, Arizona: Tucson, 
Ariz., Bur. Mines, scale 1:375,000. 
Nos. 56, 59-63, 65. 

Cooper, J. R., 1960, Reconnaissance map of the Wilcox, Fisher Hills, Cochise, and 
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Creasey, S. C, 1967, General geology of the Mammoth quadrangle, Pinal County, 
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Drewes, Harald, 1971a, Geologic map of the Mount Wrightson quadrangle, Santa 
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Gilluly, James, 1946, The Ajo mining district, Arizona: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof, Paper 
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Hayes, P. T., and Landis, E. R., 1964, Geologic map of the southern part of the 
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Hayes, P. T., and Raup, R. B., 1968, Geologic map of the Huachuca and Mustang 
Mountains, southeastern Arizona: U.S. Geol. Survey Misc. Geol. Inv. Map 1-509, 
scale 1:48,000. 
No. 4. 



102 



PLACER GOLD DEPOSITS OF ARIZONA 



Heindl, L. A., and McCullough, R. A., 1961, Geology and the availability of water in 
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No. 15. 

Hill, J. M., 1910, Notes on the placer deposits of Greaterville, Arizona: U.S. Geol. 
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Jones, E. L., Jr., 1915, Gold deposits near Quartzsite, Arizona: U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 
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1916, A reconnaissance in the Kofa Mountains, Arizona: U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 

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Krieger, M. H., 1965, Geology of the Prescott and Paulden quadrangles, Arizona: 
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1967, Reconnaissance geologic map of the Iron Springs quadrangle, Yavapai 

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Lausen, Carl, 1931, Geology and ore deposits of the Oatman and Katherine districts, 
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Lausen, Carl, and Wilson, E. D., 1925, Gold and copper deposits near Payson, Ari- 
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Lindgren, Waldemar, 1905a, The copper deposits of the Clifton-Morenci district, 
Arizona: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 43, pi. 1. 
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1926, Ore deposits of the Jerome and Bradshaw Mountains quadrangles, Arizona: 

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Longwell, C. R., 1936, Geology of the Boulder Reservoir floor, Arizona-Nevada: Geol. 
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1963, Reconnaissance geology between Lake Mead and Davis Dam, Arizona- 
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Miller, F. K., 1970, Geologic map of the Quartzsite quadrangle, Yuma County, Ari- 
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Peterson, D. W., 1960, Geologic map of the Haunted Canyon quadrangle: U.S. Geol. 
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Peterson, N, P., 1962, Geology and ore deposits of the Globe-Miami district, 
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Gulch, Pinto Creek, and Pinal Creek) . 
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Peterson, N. P., Gilbert, C. M., and Quick, G. L., 1951, Geology and ore deposits of 
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pi. 1. (Gold Gulch.) 
No. 9. 



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Ransome, F. L., 1904, Description of the Globe quadrangle [Arizona]: U.S. Geol. 
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1923a, Description of the Ray quadrangle [Arizona]: U.S. Geol. Survey Geol. 

Atlas, Folio 217, 23 p. 
No. 10. 

1923b, Geology of the Oatman gold district, Arizona: U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 

743, pi. 1. 
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Schrader, F. C, 1909, Mineral deposits of the Cerbat Range, Black Mountains and 
Grand Wash Cliffs, Mohave County, Arizona: U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 297, pi. 1. 

Willden, Ronald, 1964, Geology of the Christmas quadrangle, Gila and Pinal Coun- 
ties, Arizona: U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1161-E, pi. 1. 
No. 10. 

Wilson, E. D., 1960, Geologic map of Yuma County, Arizona: Arizona Bur. Mines, 
scale 1:375,000. 
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Wilson, E. D., and Moore, R. T., 1958, Geologic map of Graham and Greenlee 
Counties, Arizona: Arizona Bur. Mines, scale 1:375,000. 
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1959a, Geologic map of Mohave County: Arizona Bur. Mines, scale 1:375,000. 

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1959b, Geologic map of Pinal County, Arizona: Arizona Bur. Mines, scale 

1:375,000. 
No. 46. 

Wilson, E. D., Moore, R. T., and Cooper, J. R., 1969, Geologic map of Arizona: U.S. 

Geol. Survey, scale 1:500,000. 
Wilson, E. D., Moore, R. T., and O'Haire, R. T., 1960, Geologic map of Pima and 

Santa Cruz Counties, Arizona: Arizona Bur. Mines, scale 1:375,000. 
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Wilson, E. D., Moore, R. T., and Peirce, H. W., 1957, Geologic map of Maricopa 
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1959, Geologic map of Gila County, Arizona: Arizona Bur. Mines, scale 1:375,000. 

No. 8. 



ft U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1972 0—461-760